SOCIOLOGY SYLLABUS FOR UPSC IAS MAINS EXAM



SOCIOLOGY PAPER– I

FUNDAMENTALS  OF  SOCIOLOGY1.  Sociology - The Discipline:(a)Modernity and social changes in Europe andemergence of Sociology.(b)Scope of the subject and comparison with other socialsciences.(c)Sociology and common sense.2.  Sociology as  Science:(a)Science, scientific method and critique.(b)Major theoretical strands of research methodology.(c)Positivism and its critique.(d)Fact value and objectivity.( e)Non-positivist methodologies.3. Research Methods and Analysis:(a)Qualitative and quantitative methods.(b)Techniques of data collection.(c )Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.4. Sociological Thinkers:(a)Karl Marx - Historical materialism, mode of production,alienation, class struggle.(b)Emile Durkhteim - Division of labour, social fact,suicide, religion and society.(c)Max Weber - Social action, ideal types, authority,bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit ofcapitalism.(d)Talcolt Parsons - Social system, pattern variables.(e)Robert K. Merton - Latent and manifest functions,conformity and deviance, reference groups.(f)Mead - Self and identity.5.  Stratification and Mobility :(a)Concepts - equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion,poverty and deprivation.(b)Theories of social stratification - Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.(c)  Dimensions - Social stratification of class, statusgroups, gender, ethnicity and race.(d)Social mobility - open and closed systems, types ofmobility, sources and causes of mobility.6. Works and Economic Life :(a)Social organization of work in different types ofsociety - slave society, feudal society, industrialcapitalist society.

(b)Formal and informal organization of work.(c)Labour and society.7.  Politics and Society:(a)Sociological theories of power.(b)Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups andpolitical parties.(c)Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society,ideology.(d)Protest, agitation, social movements, collectiveaction, revolution.8. Religion and Society :(a)Sociological theories of religion.(b)Types of religious practices: animism, monism,pluralism, sects, cults.(c) Religion in modern society: religion and science,secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.9.  Systems of Kinship:(a)Family, household, marriage.(b)Types and forms of family.(c)Lineage and descent.(d)Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.(e)Contemporary trends.10. Social Change in Modern Society :(a)Sociological theories of social change.(b)Development and dependency.(c)Agents of social change.(d)Education and social change.(e)Science, technology and social change.

PAPER–II INDIAN  SOCIETY :

STRUCTURE  AND  CHANGEA. Introducing Indian Society :(i)Perspectives on the Study of Indian Society :(a)Indology (G.S. Ghure).(b)Structural functionalism (M. N. Srinivas).(c)Marxist sociology (A. R. Desai).(ii)Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :(a)Social background of Indian nationalism.(b)Modernization of Indian tradition.(c)Protests and movements during the colonialperiod.(d)Social reforms.B. Social Structure:(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:(a)The idea of Indian village and village studies.(b)Agrarian social structure—evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.(ii)Caste System:(a)Perspectives on the study of caste systems: G. S.Ghurye, M. N. Srinivas, Louis Dumont, AndreBeteille.(b)Features of caste system.(c)Untouchability-forms and perspectives(iii) Tribal Communities in India:(a)Definitional problems.(b)Geographical spread.(c)Colonial policies and tribes.(d)Issues of integration and autonomy.(iv)Social Classes in India:(a)Agrarian class structure.(b)Industrial class structure. (c)Middle classes in India.(v)Systems of Kinship in India:(a)Lineage and descent in India.(b)Types of kinship systems.(c)Family and marriage in India.(d)Household dimensions of the family.(e)Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division oflabour.(vi)Religion and Society :(a)Religious communities in India.(b)Problems of religious minorities.C.  Social Changes in India:(i)  Visions of Social Change in India:(a)Idea of development planning and mixed economy.(b)Constitution, law and social change.(c)Education and social change.(ii)Rural and Agrarian Transformation in India:(a)Programmes of rural development, CommunityDevelopment Programme, cooperatives, povertyalleviation schemes.(b)Green revolution and social change.(c)Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture.(d)Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.(iii)Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:(a)Evolution of modern industry in India.(b)Growth of urban settlements in India.(c)Working class: structure, growth, class  mobilization.(d)Informal sector, child labour.(e)Slums and deprivation in urban areas.  (iv)Politics and Society :(a)Nation, democracy and citizenship.(b)Political parties, pressure groups, social and politicalelite.(c)Regionalism and decentralization of power.(d)Secularization.(v)Social Movements in Modern India :(a)Peasants and farmers movements.(b)Women’s movement.(c)Backward classes & Dalit movements.(d)Environmental movements.(e)Ethnicity and Identity movements.(vi)Population Dynamics :(a)Population size, growth, composition anddistribution.(b)Components of population growth: birth, death,migration.(c)Population Policy and family planning.(d)Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infantmortality, reproductive health.(vii)  Challenges of Social Transformation :(a)Crisis of development : displacement, environmentalproblems and sustainability.(b)Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.(c)Violence against women.(d)Caste conflicts.(e)Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.(f)Illiteracy and disparities in education.