Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, politics, and social well-being of its citizen. The term Economic development frequently used  by economists, politicians,
and others in the 20th and 21st centuries. "Modernization, "westernization", and "industrialization" are the terms often used while discussing economic development. Economic development has a direct relationship with the environment and environmental issues.
Economic development is a policy which increase the market productivity and rise in GDP. Consequently, as economist Amartya Sen points out, "economic growth is one aspect of the process of economic development". economic development has been understood since the World War II to involve economic growth, namely the increases in per capita income, Economic development originated in the post-war period of reconstruction initiated by the United States. More than half the people of the world are living in conditions approaching misery. Their food is inadequate, they are victims of disease. Their economic life is primitive and stagnant. the systematic, long term government investments in transportation, housing, education, and healthcare are necessary to ensure sustainable economic growth in emerging countries. Economic growth deals with increase in the level of output, but economic development is related to increase in output coupled with improvement in social and political welfare of people within a country. Therefore, economic development encompasses both growth and welfare values. According to Ranis et al, economic growth and development is a two-way relationship. the first chain consists of economic growth benefiting human development, since economic growth is likely to lead families and individuals to use their heightened incomes to increase expenditures,  in second chain human development. At the same time, with the increased consumption and spending, health, education, and infrastructure systems grow and contribute to economic growth.
The relationship between human development and economic development can be explained in three ways. First, increase in average income leads to improvement in health and nutrition known as Capability Expansion through Economic Growth.
Second, social outcomes can only be improved by reducing income poverty known as Capability Expansion through Poverty Reduction.
Third, social outcomes can also be improved with essential services such as education, healthcare, and clean drinking water known as Capability Expansion through Social Services.



Indian constitution historical underpinnings, The preamble of the Constitution of India is the heart and soul of the Constitution. The preamble can be referred to as the preface which highlights
the entire Constitution. It was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly and came into effect on 26 January 1950. And the day is celebrated as Republic day in India. As originally enacted the preamble described the state as a "sovereign democratic republic", to which the terms "Secular" and "Socialist" were later added by the 42nd Amendment.
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens
 JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
 LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
 EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all
 FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
Sovereignty means the independent authority of a State. It means that it has the power to legislate on any subject; and that it is not subject to the control of any other State or external power. the word ‘sovereign’ is taken from article 5 of the constitution of Ireland. Sovereignty has two aspects- external and internal.
External sovereignty means the independence of a country of the will of other country in international law.
Internal sovereignty means the relationship between the states and the individuals within its territory. Internal sovereignty relates to internal and domestic affairs, and is divided into four organs, namely, the executive, the legislature, the judiciary and the administrative.
 The term socialist means to democratic socialism, i.e. achievement of socialist goals through democratic, evolutionary and non-violent means. through distributive justice, not concentrated in the hands of few, and that the government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socio-economic inequalities.
By the 42nd Amendment in 1976, the term "Secular" was also incorporated in the Preamble. the term "Secular" means There is no difference of religion i.e. all religion are equally respected and there is no state religion. All the citizens of India are allowed to profess, practice and propagate any religion.
The term Democratic means that The people of India elect their governments by a system of universal adult franchise, known as "one man one vote". Every citizen of India 18 years of age and above and not debarred by law is entitled to vote. The word 'democratic' not only refers to political but also to social & economic democracy.
The Word Republic means the head of state is elected and not a hereditary monarch. the republic is an entity in which the head of state is elected, directly or indirectly, for a fixed tenure. Thus, India has a President who is elected and has a fixed term of office for the five years.
India seeks social, economic and political justice to ensure equality to its citizens.
Social Justice means the absence of socially privileged classes in the society and no discrimination against any citizen on the basis of caste, creed, color, religion, gender or place of birth. India eliminating all forms of exploitations from the society.
Economic Justice means no discrimination between man and woman on the basis of income, wealth and economic status. equitable distribution of wealth, economic equality, the end of monopolistic control over means of production and distribution, decentralisation of economic resources, and the securing of adequate opportunities to all for earning their living.
Political Justice means equal, free and fair opportunities for the all indian citizen to participate in the political process. It grant of equal political rights to all the people without discrimination. The Constitution of India provides for a liberal democracy in which all the people have the right and freedom to participate.
Liberty means The idea of Liberty refers to the freedom on the activities of Indian citizens in term of what they think, their manner of expressions and the way they wish to follow up their thoughts in action. However, liberty does not mean freedom to do anything, and it must be exercised within the constitutional limits.
Equality envisages that no section of the society enjoys special privileges and individuals are provided with adequate opportunities without any discrimination: all are equal before the law.
Fraternity refers to a feeling of brotherhood and a sense of belonging with the country among its people. It leaves no room for regionalism, communalism, casteism etc., which hinders the Unity of the State.
The Preamble declares that fraternity has to assure two things—the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation. The word 'integrity' has been added to the Preamble by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment (1976).
It has been clarified by the Supreme Court of India that, being a part of the Constitution, the Preamble can be subjected to Constitutional Amendments exercised under article 368, however, the basic structure cannot be altered.
The preamble has been amended only once so far. On 18 December 1976, during the Emergency in India, the Indira Gandhi government pushed through several changes in the Forty-second Amendment of the constitution. A committee under the chairmanship of Sardar Swaran Singh recommended that this amendment the words "socialist" and "secular" were added between the words "Sovereign" and "democratic" and the words "unity of the Nation" were changed to "unity and integrity of the Nation".



Indian art consists of a variety of art forms, such as pottery, sculpture, visual arts, paintings, performing arts and textile arts.
The origin of Indian art can be traced to pre-historic settlements in the 3rd
millennium BC to modern times, Indian art has cultural influences, as well as religious influences such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and Islam.
Rock art of India includes rock carvings, engravings and paintings, commonly depicted scenes of human life alongside animals, and hunts with stone implements. Their style varied with region and age, but the most common characteristic was a red wash made using a powdered mineral called geru, which is a form of Iron Oxide.
Indus Valley Civilization (c. 5000 BCE – c. 1500 BCE)  arts mainly consist of gold, terracotta and stone figurines of girls in dancing poses reveal the presence of some forms of dance. Additionally, the terracotta figurines included cows, bears, monkeys, and dogs. The animal depicted on a seals was bull, zebra with a majestic horn, The most famous piece is the bronze Dancing Girl of Mohenjo-Daro and a figure on seals standing on its head, and another sitting cross-legged in what some call a yoga-like pose. This figure, sometimes known as a Pashupati, has been variously identified. Sir John Marshall identified a resemblance to the Hindu god, Shiva. After the end of the Indus Valley Civilization, there is a absence of anytype art of any great degree of sophistication until the Buddhist era.
The north Indian Maurya Empire flourished from 322 BCE to 185 BCE, The emperor Ashoka, who died in 232 BCE, adopted Buddhism constructed several large stupas and The famous Lion piller of Ashoka, with four lion, was adopted as the official Emblem of India after Indian independence.
The Buddhist art (c. 1 BCE – c. 500 CE), Sanchi, Bharhut and Amaravati, Stupas were constructed. Stupas were surrounded by ceremonial fences with four profusely carved toranas or ornamental gateways facing the cardinal directions. the walls of the stupa itself can be heavily decorated with reliefs, mostly illustrating the lives of the Buddha.
In Shunga Dynasty (c. 185 BCE – 72 BCE) The Great Stupa was enlarged to its present diameter of 120 feet, covered with a stone casing, topped with a balcony and umbrella, and encircled with a stone railing during the Shunga Dynasty c. 150 BCE - 50 BCE.
Satavahana dynasty (c. 1st/3rd century BCE – c. 3rd century CE) in Satavahana dynasty was originally under the rule in central India, and after 1st century CE, in the south region. During Satavahana dynasty, a great number of significant Buddhist artworks were produced because Satavahana art is influenced by Buddhism to a huge extent. Three of the most important Buddhist structures are stupas, temples, and prayer-halls. Satavahanas issued coins primarily in copper, lead and potin. Later on, silver came into use when producing coins. The coins usually have detailed portraits of rulers and inscriptions written in the language of Tamil and Telugu.
Kushan Empire (c. 30 CE - c. 375 CE) Officially established by Kujula Kadphises, the first Kushan emperor who united the Yuezhi tribes, Kushan empire was a syncretic empire in central Asia, including the region of Gandhara and other parts of what is now Pakistan. From 127 to 151 CE, Gandharan reached its peak under the reign of Kanishka the Great. In this period, Kushan art inherited the Greco-Buddhist art.
Gupta art (c. 320 CE – c. 550 CE) The Gupta period marked the "golden age" of classical Hinduism, the early architectural style of Hindu temples were sophisticated and scientific in nature, consisting large courtyards, garbh grah, siting area, prayer area a large complex and well planned architecture. temple plans with multiple shikharas (towers) and mandapas (halls) of various utility as stated in veda outlining building of temples.
Middle Kingdoms and the Late Medieval period (c. 600 CE – c. 1300 CE)
Dynasties of South India (c. 3rd century CE – c. 1300 CE). the Chola, Chera and Pandya Tamil dynasties, situated at south of the Vindhya mountains. The Shore Temple at Mamallapuram constructed by the Pallavas symbolizes early Hindu architecture, with its monolithic rock relief and sculptures of Hindu deities. They were succeeded by Chola rulers. The Chola period is also known for its bronze sculptures, the lost-wax casting technique and fresco paintings.
Temples of Khajuraho (c. 800 CE – c. 1000 CE) The Khajuraho Recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Khajuraho group of monuments were constructed by the Chandela Rajput dynasties.
During the reign of Akbar (1556—1605), the number of painters grew from around 30 during the creation of the Hamzanama in the mid-1560s, to around 130 by the mid 1590s. With the death of Akbar, his son Jahangir (1605–1627) took the throne.
Jahangir was succeeded by Shah Jahan (1628–1658), whose most notable architectural contribution is the Taj Mahal.
British period (1841–1947).
British colonial rule had a great impact on Indian art. Old patrons of art became less wealthy and influential, and Western art more ubiquitous as the British Empire established schools of art in major cities, e.g. the Bombay Art Society in 1888.
With the Swadeshi Movement gaining momentum by 1905, Indian artists attempted to resuscitate the cultural identities suppressed by the British, rejecting the Romanticized style of the Company paintings and the mannered work of Raja Ravi Varma and his followers. Thus was created what is known today as the Bengal School of Art, led by the reworked Asian styles (with an emphasis on Indian nationalism) of Abanindranath Tagore (1871—1951), who has been referred to as the father of Modern Indian art. Other artists of the Tagore family, such as Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941) and Gaganendranath Tagore (1867–1938) as well as new artists of the early 20th century such as Amrita Sher-Gil (1913–1941) were responsible for introducing Avant-garde western styles into Indian Art. Many other artists like Jamini Roy and later S.H. Raza took inspiration from folk traditions. In 1944, K.C.S. Paniker founded the Progressive Painters' Association (PPA) thus giving rise to the "madras movement" in art. 



Operations management is the branch of management which deals with designing and controlling the process of the production of goods and services. Operations management main function is
to ensuring the business operations as efficient as possible by using as few resources as needed and meeting the production and product quality as per customer requirements. Operations management primarily  function is to planning, organizing and supervising of the production, manufacturing or to deliver  services. It deals with managing an entire production system. Operation management covers sectors like banking systems, hospitals, companies, working with suppliers, customers, and using technology. Operations is one of the major functions in an organization along with supply chains, marketing, finance and human resources. The operations management manages of both the strategic and day-to-day production of goods and services.
In managing manufacturing or service operations several types of decisions are made including operations strategy, product design, process design, quality management, capacity, facilities planning, production planning and inventory control. Each of these requires an ability to analyze the current situation and find better solutions to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of manufacturing or deliver the service.
The history of production and operation systems began around 5000 B.C. when Sumerian priests developed the ancient system of recording inventories, loans, taxes, and business transactions. The next major historical application of operation systems occurred in 4000 B.C. It was during this time that the Egyptians started using planning, organization, and control in large projects such as the construction of the pyramids. By 1100 B.C.,
In 1883, Frederick Winslow Taylor introduced the stopwatch method for accurately measuring the time to perform each single task of a complicated job. He developed the scientific study of productivity and identifying how to coordinate different tasks to eliminate wasting of time and increase the quality of work. The next generation of scientific study occurred with the development of work sampling and predetermined motion time systems (PMTS).
Service Industries: At the turn of the twentieth century, the services industries were already developed, but largely fragmented. In 1900 the U.S. service industry consisted of banks, professional services, schools, general stores, railroads and telegraph. Services were largely local in nature and owned by entrepreneurs and families.
 In 1911 Taylor published "The Principles of Scientific Management", in which he characterized scientific management as:
1-The development of a true science;
2-The scientific selection of the worker;
3-The scientific education and development of the worker;
4-Intimate friendly cooperation between the management and the workers.
In 1983 J.N Edwards published his "MRP and Kanban-American style" in which he described JIT goals in terms of seven zeros:] zero defects, zero (excess) lot size, zero setups, zero breakdowns, zero handling, zero lead time and zero surging. This period also marks the spread of Total Quality Management (TQM) in Japan, ideas initially developed by American authors such as Deming, Juran and Armand V. Feigenbaum. TQM is a strategy for implementing and managing quality improvement on an organizational basis, this includes: participation, work culture, customer focus, supplier quality improvement and integration of the quality system with business goals. Schnonberger identified seven fundamentals principles essential to the Japanese approach:
1-Process control: SPC and worker responsibility over quality
2-Easy able -to-see quality: boards, gauges, meters, etc. and poka-yoke
3-Insistence on compliance: "quality first"
4-Line stop: stop the line to correct quality problems
5-Correcting one's own errors: worker fixed a defective part if he produced it
6-The 100% check: automated inspection techniques and foolproof machines
7-Continual improvement: ideally zero defects
In 1987 the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), recognizing the growing importance of quality, issued the ISO 9000, a family of standards related to quality management systems. There standards apply to both manufacturing and service organizations. There has been some controversy regarding the proper procedures to follow and the amount of paperwork involved, but much of that has improved in current ISO 9000 revisions.



Management is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business organization , a non profit organization, or a government body. Management incorporate the activities of setting the
strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees to accomplish the organization goal or objective through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. The term "management" may also refer to those people who manage an organization.
Larger organizations generally have three levels of managers, these are, Senior managers, Middle managers and Lower managers.
Senior managers are the top lavel mangement members. these are the members of a Board of Directors and a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) or a President of an organization. They set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers are generally executive-level professionals, and provide direction to middle management who directly or indirectly report to them.
Middle managers, examples of Middle managers are branch managers, regional managers, department managers and section managers, who provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers.
Lower managers are, such as supervisors and front-line team leaders, oversee the work of regular employees or a volunteers, in some voluntary organizations and provide direction on their work.
Management involves identifying the mission, objective, procedures, rules and manipulation of the human capital of an enterprise to contribute to the success of the enterprise.
According to Henri Fayol, management consist of six functions: these are to forecast, to planning, to organizing, to commanding, to coordinating and to controlling."
According to Mary Parker Follett defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". She described management as philosophy.
According to Fredmund Malik defined management as "the transformation of resources into utility." to increase production with the help of machines, materials and money.
Ghislain Deslandes defines management as “a vulnerable force, under pressure to achieve results and endowed with the triple power of constraint, imitation and imagination, operating on subjective, interpersonal, institutional and environmental levels”
Peter Drucker saw management as twofold: marketing and innovation.
The primary function of profitable organization is to making a profit for its stakeholders and shareholders by creating valued products at a reasonable price for customers and providing great employment opportunities for employees.
In nonprofit organization the main role of  management is the keeping the faith of donors and shareholders. In nonprofit organization shareholders vote for the board of directors, and then board hires the senior management.



Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that secure the concepts of right and wrong conduct. The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, that concern the matters of value, called axiology.
Ethics clarify the questions of human morality by defining the concepts of good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime. the word "ethics" is taken from Greek word ethikos which meaning is character of a person.
according to  Rushworth Kidder ethics is the science of the ideal human character or 'the science of moral duty'.
Richard William Paul and Linda Elder define ethics as "a set of concepts and principles that guide us in determining what behavior helps or harms sentient creatures"
According to Bioethicist Larry Churchill "Ethics, understood as the capacity to think critically about moral values and direct our actions in terms of such values, is a generic human capacity." Ethics can also be used to describe a particular person's own idiosyncratic principles or habits.
Three major areas of study within ethics recognized today are
1- Meta-ethics, concerning the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions, and how their truth values can be determined. meta ethics can be divide into cognitivism and non-cognitivism; Non-cognitivism is the view that when we judge something as morally right or wrong, this is neither true nor false. We only express our emotional feelings about the things. Cognitivism based on the matters of fact, not on emotion
2- Normative ethics, concerning the practical means of determining a moral course of action. Normative ethics is the study of ethical action. It is the branch of ethics that investigates the set of questions that arise when considering how one ought to act, morally speaking. Normative ethics is distinct from meta-ethics because normative ethics examines standards for the rightness and wrongness of actions, while meta-ethics studies the meaning of moral language and the metaphysics of moral facts.
3- Applied ethics, concerning what a person is obligated or permitted to do in a specific situation or a particular domain of action. Applied ethics is a discipline of philosophy that attempts to apply ethical theory to real-life situations. The discipline has many specialized fields, such as engineering ethics, bioethics, geoethics, public service ethics and business ethics.
Descriptive ethics - Descriptive ethics is on the less philosophical end of the spectrum since it seeks to gather particular information about how people live and draw general conclusions based on observed patterns. Descriptive ethics offers a value-free approach to ethics, which defines it as a social science rather than a humanity


The economy of India is a developing mixed economy. The economy of India is the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and the third-largest economy by purchasing power parity (PPP). The country
ranks 139th in per capita GDP (nominal) with $2,134 and 122th in per capita GDP
purchasing power parity (PPP) with $7,783 as of 2018. After the 1991 economic liberalisation, India achieved 6 to 7% average GDP growth annually. Since 2014 with the exception of 2017, India's economy has been the world's fastest growing economy, surpassing the China. India has one of the fastest growing service sectors in the world with an annual growth rate above 9% since 2001, India has classified and tracked its economy and GDP in three sectors: agriculture, industry and services. Agriculture includes crops, horticulture, milk and animal husbandry, aquaculture, fishing, sericulture, aviculture, forestry and related activities. Industry includes various manufacturing sub-sectors. India's definition of services sector includes its construction, retail, software, IT, communications, hospitality, infrastructure operations, education, healthcare, banking and insurance, and many other economic activities. service sector which contributed to 57% of GDP in 2012–13. India has become a major exporter of IT services, Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) services, and software services with $154 billion revenue in FY 2017. The agricultural sector is the largest employer in India's economy but contributes to 17%  share of  GDP in 2013–14. The  manufacturing industry sector contributes 26% share of GDP in 2013–14. India had $600 billion worth of retail market in 2015 and one of world's fastest growing e-commerce markets. 


The Constitution of India is the highest top most law of India. The Constitution of India framework define fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, duties of government institutions and
fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. The Constitution of India is the world's longest written constitution. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was the chairman of the drafting committe. it was created by a constituent assembly rather than Parliament. Parliament cannot override the constitution. It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 and became effective on 26 January 1950. the Dominion of India became the sovereign democratic  republic of India. India celebrates its constitution effective day on 26 January as Republic Day. The constitution declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular country and assuring its citizens justice, equality and liberty, and efforts to promote fraternity. its framers borrowed features of previous legislation such as the Government of India Act 1858, the Indian Councils Acts of 1861, 1892 and 1909, the Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935, and the Indian Independence Act 1947. The constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, which was elected by elected 389 members of the provincial assemblies. The first, two-day president of the assembly was Sachchidananda Sinha then after two days  Rajendra Prasad was elected president. Benegal Narsing Rau, a civil servant who became the first Indian judge in the International Court of Justice and was president of the United Nations Security Council, was appointed as the assembly's constitutional adviser in 1946. Rau prepared its initial draft. At 14 August 1947 meeting of the assembly proposed a drafting  committees and on 29 August 1947 drafting  committee appointed  with eight members dr. B. R. Ambedkar as chairperson. Rau's draft was considered, debated and amended by the drafting  committee and  revised draft constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the assembly on 4 November 1947. While debate on the revised draft constitution, the assembly
changed 2,473 amendments out of total 7,635 amendments. Before adopting the constitution, the assembly arranged eleven sessions in 165 days for the review of the constitution. On 26 November 1949 it adopted the constitution, which was signed by 284 members. 26 November is celebrated as National Law Day, or Constitution Day. The assembly's final session convened on 24 January 1950. Each member signed two copies of the constitution, one in Hindi and the other in English. The original constitution is hand-written, with each page decorated by artists from Shantiniketan including Beohar Rammanohar Sinha and Nandalal Bose. Its calligrapher was Prem Behari Narain Raizada. The constitution was published in Dehradun and photolithographed by the Survey of India. Production of the original constitution took nearly five years. Two days later, on 26 January 1950, it became the law of India. The estimated cost of the Constituent Assembly was ₹6.3 crore. The original 1950 constitution is preserved in a helium-filled case at the Parliament House in New Delhi.
The following Articles is taken from other countries constitutions
from United Kingdom -
Parliamentary government
Concept of single citizenship
Rule of law
The legislative speaker and their role
Legislative procedure

From United States -
Bill of Rights
Federal structure of government
Electoral College
Independent judiciary and separation of powers
Judicial review
President as commander-in-chief of the armed forces
Equal protection under law

From Ireland
Directive principles of state policy

From Australia
Freedom of trade between states
National legislative power to implement treaties, even on matters outside normal federal jurisdiction
Concurrent List
Preamble terminology

From France
Ideals of liberte, egalite, fraternite

From Canada
Quasi-federal government — a federal system with a strong central government
Distribution of powers between the central and state governments
Residual powers, retained by the central government

From Soviet Union
Fundamental Duties under article 51-A
Mandated planning commission to oversee economic development

From Other constitutions
The emergency provision under article 356 (from the Weimar Constitution)
Amending the constitution (from South Africa)
Due process (from Japan)
The Indian constitution is the world's longest for a sovereign nation. At the start it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. now it has a preamble and 448 articles, which are grouped into 25 parts. With 12 schedules  and five appendices, it has been amended  till now 101 times latest amendment became effective on 1 July 2017.
The constitution's articles are grouped into the following parts:
Preamble, with the words "socialist" and "secular", and 'integrity' added in 1976 by the 42nd amendment
Part I – States and union territories
Part II – Citizenship
Part III – Fundamental Rights
Part IV – Directive Principles of State Policy
Part IVA – Fundamental Duties
Part V – The union
Part VI – The states
Part VII – States in the B part of the first schedule (repealed)
Part VIII – Union territories
Part IX – Panchayats
Part IXA – Municipalities
Part IXB – Co-operative societies
Part X – Scheduled and tribal areas
Part XI – Relations between the union and the states
Part XII – Finance, property, contracts and suits
Part XIII – Trade and commerce within India
Part XIV – Services under the union and states
Part XIVA – Tribunals
Part XV – Elections
Part XVI – Special provisions relating to certain classes
Part XVII – Languages
Part XVIII – Emergency provisions
Part XIX – Miscellaneous
Part XX – Amending the constitution
Part XXI – Temporary, transitional and special provisions
Part XXII – Short title, date of commencement, authoritative text in Hindi and repeals

Schedules are lists in the constitution which categorise and tabulate bureaucratic activity and government policy.
First Schedule (Articles 1 and 4) – Lists India's states and territories, changes in their borders and the laws used to make that change.
Second Schedule (Articles 59(3), 65(3), 75(6), 97, 125, 148(3), 158(3), 164(5), 186 and 221) – Lists the salaries of public officials, judges, and the Comptroller and Auditor General.
Third Schedule (Articles 75(4), 99, 124(6), 148(2), 164(3), 188 and 219) – Forms of oaths – Lists the oaths of office for elected officials and judges.
Fourth Schedule (Articles 4(1) and 80(2)) – Details the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha (upper house of Parliament) by state or union territory.
Fifth Schedule (Article 244(1)) – Provides for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes (areas and tribes requiring special protection).
Sixth Schedule (Articles 244(2) and 275(1)) – Provisions made for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram.
Seventh Schedule (Article 246) — Central government, state, and concurrent lists of responsibilities
Eighth Schedule (Articles 344(1) and 351) – Official languages
Ninth Schedule (Article 31-B) – Validation of certain acts and regulations
Tenth Schedule (Articles 102(2) and 191(2)) – Anti-defection provisions for members of Parliament and state legislatures.
Eleventh Schedule (Article 243-G) —Panchayat Raj (rural local government)
Twelfth Schedule (Article 243-W) — Municipalities (urban local government)
Appendix I – The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954
Appendix II – Re-statement, referring to the constitution's present text, of exceptions and modifications applicable to the state of Jammu and Kashmir
Appendix III – Extracts from the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978
Appendix IV – The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002
Appendix V – The Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2003

The executive, legislative and judicial branches of government receive their power from the constitution and are bound by it. India is governed by a parliamentary system of government with the executive directly accountable to the legislature. The President of India is head of the executive, under Articles 52 and 53, with the duty of preserving, protecting and defending the constitution and the law under Article 60. Article 74 provides for a Prime Minister as head of the Council of Ministers, which aids and advises the president in the performance of their constitutional duties. The council is answerable to the lower house under Article 75(3).
The constitution is considered federal in nature, and unitary in spirit. It has features of a federation (a codified, supreme constitution, a three-tier governmental structure [central, state and local], division of powers, bicameralism and an independent judiciary) and unitary features such as a single constitution, single citizenship, an integrated judiciary, a flexible constitution, a strong central government, appointment of state governors by the central government, All India Services (the IAS, IFS and IPS) and emergency provisions. This unique combination makes it quasi-federal in form. Each state and union territory has its own government. Analogous to the president and prime minister, each has a governor or (in union territories) a lieutenant governor and a chief minister. Article 356 permits the president to dismiss a state government and assume direct authority if a situation arises in which state government cannot be conducted in accordance with constitution. This power, known as president's rule, The 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts introduced the system of panchayati raj in rural areas and Nagar Palikas in urban areas. Article 370 gives special status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. 
Amendments are additions, variations or repeal of any part of the constitution by Parliament. The procedure is detailed in Article 368. An amendment bill must be passed by each house of Parliament by a two-thirds majority of its members. Certain amendments pertaining to the constitution's federal nature must also be ratified by a majority of state legislatures. Unlike ordinary bills in accordance with Article 245 (except for money bills), there is no provision for a joint session of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha to pass a constitutional amendment. 
By July 2018, 124 amendment bills had been presented in Parliament; out of these, 101 became Amendment Acts. 
The judiciary is the final arbiter of the constitution. Its duty is to act as a watchdog, preventing any legislative or executive act from overstepping constitutional bounds. The judiciary protects the fundamental rights of the people, and balances the conflicting exercise of power between the central government and a state.


The culture of India refers collectively to the thousands of distinct and unique cultures of all religions and communities present in India. India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food,
and customs differ from place to place within the country. Indian culture, often labeled as an amalgamation of several cultures, spans across the Indian subcontinent and has been influenced by Many elements of India's diverse cultures, such as Indian religions, philosophy, cuisine, languages, arts, dance and music. Indian-origin religions Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism, all of which are based on the concept of dharma and karma. Ahimsa, a philosophy of nonviolence, is an important aspect of native Indian faiths. India is the birthplace of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, and other religions. They are collectively known as Indian religions. Today, Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third and fourth-largest religions respectively, with over 2 billion followers altogether, According to the 2011 census, 79.8% of the population of India practice Hinduism. Islam (14.2%), Christianity (2.3%), Sikhism (1.7%), Buddhism (0.7%) and Jainism (0.4%). Indian philosophy comprises six schools of orthodox they are Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mimamsa and Vedanta—and four heterodox schools—Jain, Buddhist, ajivika and Carvaka last two are also schools of Hinduism. India has a prevailing tradition of the joint family system. where all family member live together. Usually, the oldest male member is the head in the joint family system. He mostly makes all important decisions. Arranged marriages  norm in Indian society. Even today, the most of Indians have their marriages planned by their parents and other respected family-members. Weddings are festive occasions in India with extensive decorations, colors, music, dance, costumes and rituals that depend on the religion of the bride and the groom, there are a few key rituals common in Hindu weddings – Kanyadaan, Panigrahana, and Saptapadi; these are respectively, gifting away of daughter by the father, voluntarily holding hand near the fire to signify impending union, and taking seven steps before fire with each step including a set of mutual vows. After the seventh step and vows of Saptapadi, the couple is legally husband and wife. Sikhs get married through a ceremony called Anand Karaj. The couple walk around the holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib four times. Indian Muslims wedding  rituals include Nikah, payment of financial dower called Mahr by the groom to the bride, signing of marriage contract, and a reception. Indian Christian weddings follow customs similar to those practiced in the Christian countries. India, being a multi-cultural, multi-ethnic and multi-religious society, celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. The three main national holidays in India is the Independence Day, the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti, which are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India. In addition, many Indian states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. Popular hindu religious festivals are Navratri, Janmashtami, Diwali, Maha Shivratri, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga Puja, Holi, Rath Yatra, Ugadi, Onam, Vasant Panchami, Rakshabandhan, and Dussehra. Several harvest festivals such as Makar Sankranti, Sohrai, Pusna, Hornbill, Chapchar Kut, Pongal and Raja sankaranti swinging festival are also fairly popular. Indian New Year festival are celebrated in different part of India with unique style in different times. Ugadi, Bihu, Gudhi Padwa, Puthandu, Vaisakhi, Pohela Boishakh, Vishu and Vishuva Sankranti are the New Year festival of different part of India. Sikh festivals, such as Guru Nanak Jayanti, Baisakhi are celebrated with full fanfare by Sikhs and Hindus of Punjab and Delhi. Islam in India is the second largest religion with over 172 million Muslims, according to India's 2011 census. The Islamic festivals declared public holiday in India are; Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Adha (Bakri Eid), Milad-un-Nabi, Muharram and Shab-e-Barat.  Some of the Indian states have declared regional holidays for the particular regional popular festivals; such as Arba'een, Jumu'ah-tul-Wida and Shab-e-Qadar. Christianity is India's third largest religion. With over 23 million Christians, The country celebrates Christmas and Good Friday as public holidays. Regional and community fairs are also common festival in India. Pushkar fair of Rajasthan is one of the world's largest markets of cattle and livestock. Greetings include Namaste (Hindi and Sanskrit), Namaskar (Hindi), Juhar/Namaskar in Odia, Namaskar (Marathi), Namaskara (Kannada), Namaskaram (Telugu, Malayalam), Vanakkam (Tamil), Nomoshkaar (Bengali), Nomoskar (Assamese), Aadab (Urdu), and Sat Shri Akal (Punjabi). All these are common spoken greetings or salutations when people meet, and are forms of farewell when they depart.  Other greetings include Jai Jagannath (used in Odia) Ami Aschi (used in Bengali), Jai Shri Krishna (in Gujarati and the Braj Bhasha and Rajasthani dialects of Hindi), Ram Ram/(Jai) Sita Ram ji (Awadhi and Bhojpuri dialects of Hindi and other Bihari dialects), and Sat Sri Akal (Punjabi; used by followers of Sikhism), As-salamu alaykum (Urdu; used by follower of Islam), Jai Jinendra (a common greeting used by followers of Jainism), Jai Bhim (used by followers of Ambedkarism), Namo Buddha (used by followers of Buddhism), Allah Abho (used by followers of Bahá'í), Shalom aleichem (used by followers of Judaism), Hamazor Hama Ashobed (used by followers of Zoroastrianism), Sahebji (Persian and Gujarati; used by the Parsi people), Dorood (Persian and Guarati; used by the Irani people), Om Namah Shivaya/Jai Bholenath (used in Dogri and Kashmiri, also used in the city of Varanasi), Jai Ambe Maa/Jai Mata di (used in Eastern India), Jai Ganapati Bapa (used in Marathi and Konkani). These traditional forms of greeting may be absent in the world of business and in India's urban environment, where a handshake is a common form of greeting.
In Hinduism, the cow is regarded as a symbol of ahimsa (non-violence), mother goddess and bringer of good fortune and wealth.[86] For this reason, cows are revered in Hindu culture and feeding a cow is seen as an act of worship. This is why beef remains a taboo food in mainstream Hindu and Jain society.
Indian food is as diverse as India. Indian cuisine is diverse, ranging from very spicy to very mild, varying with seasons in each region. These reflect the local agriculture, regional climate, culinary innovations and cultural diversity. Food in India is sometimes served in thali – a plate with rice, bread. Indian cuisines use numerous ingredients, deploy a wide range of food preparation styles, cooking techniques and culinary presentation. From salads to sauces, from vegetarian to meat, from spices to sensuous, from breads to desserts, Indian cuisine is invariably complex.
Traditional clothing in India greatly varies across different parts of the country and is influenced by local culture, geography, climate and rural-urban settings. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as sari and mekhela sador for women and dhoti or lungi or panche (in Kannada) for men. Stitched clothes are also popular such as churidar or salwar-kameez for women, with dupatta (long scarf) thrown over shoulder completing the outfit. Salwar is often loose fitting, while churidar is a tighter cut. The dastar, a headgear worn by Sikhs is common in Punjab.
The language with the largest number of speakers in India is Hindi and it's various dialects. Early forms of present-day Hindustani developed from the Middle Indo-Aryan apabhraṃśa vernaculars of present-day North India in the 7th–13th centuries. During the time of Islamic rule in parts of India, it became influenced by Persian. The Persian influence led to the development of Urdu, which is more Persianized and written in the Perso-Arabic script. Modern standard Hindi has a lesser Persian influence and is written in the Devanagari script.
The Indian art of dance is the expression of inner beauty and the divine in man. each gesture seeks to communicate the ideas, each facial expression the emotions. Indian dance includes eight classical dance forms, many in narrative forms with mythological elements. The eight classical forms accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, yakshagana of Karnataka, manipuri of Manipur, odissi (orissi) of the state of Odisha and the sattriya of Assam.
Most early and medieval art in India is Cave paintings from Ajanta and Ellora.medieval India art Pattachitra, Madhubani painting, Mysore painting, Rajput painting, Tanjore painting and Mughal painting are some notable Genres of Indian Art; During the period of the Mauryan and Gupta empires and their successors, several Buddhist architectural complexes, such as the caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa were built. Later on, South India produced several Hindu temples like Chennakesava Temple at Belur, the Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura, Brihadeeswara Temple, Thanjavur built by Raja Raja Chola, the Sun Temple, Konark, Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam, and the Buddha stupa (Chinna Lanja dibba and Vikramarka kota dibba) at Bhattiprolu. Rajput kingdoms oversaw the construction of Khajuraho Temple Complex, Chittor Fort and Chaturbhuj Temple, etc. during their reign. Angkor Wat, Borobudur and other Buddhist and Hindu temples indicate strong Indian influence on South East Asian architecture, as they are built in styles almost identical to traditional Indian religious buildings. the Indo-Islamic style of architecture. The Qutb complex, a group of monuments constructed by successive sultanas of the Delhi Sultanate is one of the earliest examples. Fatehpur Sikri Taj Mahal, Gol Gumbaz, Red Fort of Delhi, and Charminar are creations of this era, and are often used as the stereotypical symbols of India. Contemporary Indian architecture is more cosmopolitan. Cities are extremely compact and densely populated. Mumbai's Nariman Point is famous for its Art Deco buildings. Recent creations such as the Lotus Temple,  Golden Pagoda and Akshardham, and the various modern urban developments of India like Bhubaneswar and Chandigarh, are notable.
Field hockey was considered to be the national game of India, Cricket is also considered the most popular sport in India. Football is popular in the Indian state of West Bengal. The city of Kolkata is the home to the largest stadium in India, and the second largest stadium in the world by capacity, Salt Lake Stadium. Chess is commonly believed to have originated in northwestern India during the Gupta empire, where its early form in the 6th century was known as chaturanga. Other games which originated in India and continue to remain popular in wide parts of northern India include Kabaddi, Gilli-danda, and Kho kho. Traditional southern Indian games include Snake boat race and Kuttiyum kolum. The modern game of polo is derived from Manipur, India, where the game was known as 'Sagol Kangjei'. The first polo club was established in the town of Silchar in Assam, India, in 1833. In 2011, India inaugurated a privately built Buddh International Circuit, its first motor racing circuit. The 5.14-kilometre circuit is in Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, near Delhi. The first Formula One Indian Grand Prix event was hosted here in October 2011.



FUNDAMENTALS  OF  SOCIOLOGY1.  Sociology - The Discipline:(a)Modernity and social changes in Europe andemergence of
Sociology.(b)Scope of the subject and comparison with other socialsciences.(c)Sociology and common sense.2.  Sociology as  Science:(a)Science, scientific method and critique.(b)Major theoretical strands of research methodology.(c)Positivism and its critique.(d)Fact value and objectivity.( e)Non-positivist methodologies.3. Research Methods and Analysis:(a)Qualitative and quantitative methods.(b)Techniques of data collection.(c )Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.4. Sociological Thinkers:(a)Karl Marx - Historical materialism, mode of production,alienation, class struggle.(b)Emile Durkhteim - Division of labour, social fact,suicide, religion and society.(c)Max Weber - Social action, ideal types, authority,bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit ofcapitalism.(d)Talcolt Parsons - Social system, pattern variables.(e)Robert K. Merton - Latent and manifest functions,conformity and deviance, reference groups.(f)Mead - Self and identity.5.  Stratification and Mobility :(a)Concepts - equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion,poverty and deprivation.(b)Theories of social stratification - Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.(c)  Dimensions - Social stratification of class, statusgroups, gender, ethnicity and race.(d)Social mobility - open and closed systems, types ofmobility, sources and causes of mobility.6. Works and Economic Life :(a)Social organization of work in different types ofsociety - slave society, feudal society, industrialcapitalist society.

(b)Formal and informal organization of work.(c)Labour and society.7.  Politics and Society:(a)Sociological theories of power.(b)Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups andpolitical parties.(c)Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society,ideology.(d)Protest, agitation, social movements, collectiveaction, revolution.8. Religion and Society :(a)Sociological theories of religion.(b)Types of religious practices: animism, monism,pluralism, sects, cults.(c) Religion in modern society: religion and science,secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.9.  Systems of Kinship:(a)Family, household, marriage.(b)Types and forms of family.(c)Lineage and descent.(d)Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.(e)Contemporary trends.10. Social Change in Modern Society :(a)Sociological theories of social change.(b)Development and dependency.(c)Agents of social change.(d)Education and social change.(e)Science, technology and social change.


STRUCTURE  AND  CHANGEA. Introducing Indian Society :(i)Perspectives on the Study of Indian Society :(a)Indology (G.S. Ghure).(b)Structural functionalism (M. N. Srinivas).(c)Marxist sociology (A. R. Desai).(ii)Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :(a)Social background of Indian nationalism.(b)Modernization of Indian tradition.(c)Protests and movements during the colonialperiod.(d)Social reforms.B. Social Structure:(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:(a)The idea of Indian village and village studies.(b)Agrarian social structure—evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.(ii)Caste System:(a)Perspectives on the study of caste systems: G. S.Ghurye, M. N. Srinivas, Louis Dumont, AndreBeteille.(b)Features of caste system.(c)Untouchability-forms and perspectives(iii) Tribal Communities in India:(a)Definitional problems.(b)Geographical spread.(c)Colonial policies and tribes.(d)Issues of integration and autonomy.(iv)Social Classes in India:(a)Agrarian class structure.(b)Industrial class structure. (c)Middle classes in India.(v)Systems of Kinship in India:(a)Lineage and descent in India.(b)Types of kinship systems.(c)Family and marriage in India.(d)Household dimensions of the family.(e)Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division oflabour.(vi)Religion and Society :(a)Religious communities in India.(b)Problems of religious minorities.C.  Social Changes in India:(i)  Visions of Social Change in India:(a)Idea of development planning and mixed economy.(b)Constitution, law and social change.(c)Education and social change.(ii)Rural and Agrarian Transformation in India:(a)Programmes of rural development, CommunityDevelopment Programme, cooperatives, povertyalleviation schemes.(b)Green revolution and social change.(c)Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture.(d)Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.(iii)Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:(a)Evolution of modern industry in India.(b)Growth of urban settlements in India.(c)Working class: structure, growth, class  mobilization.(d)Informal sector, child labour.(e)Slums and deprivation in urban areas.  (iv)Politics and Society :(a)Nation, democracy and citizenship.(b)Political parties, pressure groups, social and politicalelite.(c)Regionalism and decentralization of power.(d)Secularization.(v)Social Movements in Modern India :(a)Peasants and farmers movements.(b)Women’s movement.(c)Backward classes & Dalit movements.(d)Environmental movements.(e)Ethnicity and Identity movements.(vi)Population Dynamics :(a)Population size, growth, composition anddistribution.(b)Components of population growth: birth, death,migration.(c)Population Policy and family planning.(d)Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infantmortality, reproductive health.(vii)  Challenges of Social Transformation :(a)Crisis of development : displacement, environmentalproblems and sustainability.(b)Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.(c)Violence against women.(d)Caste conflicts.(e)Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.(f)Illiteracy and disparities in education.