UPSC PRELIMS CURRENT AFFAIRS QUESTIONS ANSWERS IN HINDI PART-2


प्र० - महाराष्ट्र राज्य सरकार ने किस उत्पाद को खरीदने और सब्सिडी प्राप्त करने के लिए आधार नंबर अनिवार्य कर दिया है?

उ० -  उर्वरक।

प्र० - 2020 में संयुक्त राष्ट्र का 13 वां वैश्विक वन्यजीव सम्मेलन प्रवासी प्रजाति किस देश में आयोजित किया जाएगा?

उ० - भारत।

प्र० - जस्टिस ए अरुमुघस्वामी न्यूज़ में क्यों हैं?

उ० - मुख्यमंत्री जयललिता की मौत के मामले की जांच आयोग के प्रमुख।

प्र० - विराट कोहली ने कौन सा रिकॉर्ड बनाया?

उ० - वनडे में सबसे तेज 9,000 रन बनाने वाले बल्लेबाज।

प्र० - मैक्स वेरस्टैपेन किसके लिए प्रसिद्ध है?

उ० - एफ 1 ड्राइवर जिसने मैक्सिकन ग्रैंड प्रिक्स जीता।

प्र० - "ड्रीमनेशन: एक देश के साथ एकजुट होना हस्तलिखित सपने "पुस्तक डॉ. ए.पी.जे अब्दुल कलाम पर लिखी गई है। इस पुस्तक के लेखक कौन हैं?

उ० - मिताली राज।

प्र० - चीन ने कौन सी ट्रेन रन टेस्ट की है?

उ० - स्मार्ट ट्रेन स्वायत्त रेल पारगमन (एआरटी)।

प्र० - पाओलो जेंटिलोनी किस देश के प्रधानमंत्री हैं?

उ० - इटली

प्र० - उदयमित्र क्या है?

उ० - MSMEs को आसान पहुँच प्रदान करने के लिए सिडबी क्रेडिट पोर्टल ।

प्र० - किस परियोजना के लिए भारत ने श्रीलंका के साथ समझौता किया?
उ० - 600 मिलियन रुपये में 50 मॉडल गांवों में 1,200 घरों का निर्माण।

प्र० - उत्तर प्रदेश सरकार ने बरसाना और वृंदावन शहर को किस राज्य का दर्जा दिया है?

उ० - पवित्र तीर्थ स्थल।

प्र० - ग्लोबल लीडरशिप लंदन द्वारा किस मुख्यमंत्री को गोल्डन पीकॉक अवार्ड दिया गया है?

उ० - एन चंद्रबाबू नायडू।

प्र० - किस भारतीय राज्य ने संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका के इंडियाना राज्य के साथ बहन-राज्य संबंध स्थापित करने के एक समझौते पर हस्ताक्षर किए हैं?

उ० - कर्नाटक।

प्र० - बिहार सोनेपुर मेला किसके लिए प्रसिद्ध है?

उ० - एशिया का सबसे बड़ा मवेशी मेला।

प्र० - 2023 रग्बी विश्व कप किस देश में आयोजित किया जाएगा?

उ० - फ्रांस।

UPSC PRELIMS CURRENT AFFAIRS QUESTIONS ANSWERS IN ENGLISH PART-2

UPSC PRELIMS, CURRENT AFFAIRS, QUESTIONS ANSWERS, ENGLISH PART-2

UPSC PRELIMS CURRENT AFFAIRS QUESTIONS ANSWERS IN ENGLISH PART-2 READ MORE VISIT OUR OTHERS ARTICLES FOR UPSC PRELIMS AND MAINS GENERAL STUDIES.

Q - Maharashtra state government has made Aadhar Number mandatory for which product to purchasing and get subsidy on?

A- Fertilisers.

Q - in 2020 United Nations 13th global wildlife conference Migratory Species will be held in which country?

A - India.

Q - Justice A Arumughaswamy is in News why?

A - head of the Commission of Inquiry of the Chief Minister Jayalalithaa death case.

Q - Virat Kohli Made Which Record?

A - fastest batsman to score 9,000 runs in ODIs.

Q - Max Verstappen is Famous For which?

A - F1 driver who won the Mexican Grand Prix.

Q - "Dreamnation: Uniting a Country with 
Handwritten Dreams" Book is written on Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. who is author of this book?

A - Mithali Raj.

Q - Which Train RunTest has done by China?

A - Smart Train Autonomous Rail Transit (ART).

Q - Paolo Gentiloni is Prime Minister of Which Country?

A - Italy

Q - What is Udyamimitra?

A - SIDBI portal to provide MSMEs easy access to
credit.

Q - For Which Project India Signed an Agreement with Sri Lanka?

A - Construction of 1,200 Houses through 50 Model Villages at Rs 600 Million.

Q - Barsana and Vrindavan City is Given Which Status by Uttar Pradesh government?

A - Pavitra Teerth Sthals (Sacred 
Pilgrimage Sites).

Q - Golden Peacock Award  is given to Which Chief Minister by Global Leadership in Public Service and 
Economic Transformation in London?

A - N Chandrababu Naidu.

Q - Which Indian State has signed an agreement to 
establish sister-state ties with Indiana state in the United States?

A - Karnataka.

Q - Bihar Sonepur Mela is Famous For Which?

A - Asia's Biggest Cattle Fair.

Q - 2023 Rugby World Cup will be Held in which Country?


A - France.

UPSC PRELIMS CURRENT AFFAIRS QUESTIONS ANSWERS IN HINDI PART -1

UPSC PRELIMS, CURRENT AFFAIRS QUESTIONS ANSWERS, IN HINDI

UPSC PRELIMS CURRENT AFFAIRS QUESTIONS ANSWERS IN HINDI PART -1

प्र० - पीवी सिंधु को किस राज्य में स्वच्छ मिशन ब्रांड एंबेसडर नियुक्त किया गया है?

उ० - आंध्रप्रदेश।

प्र० - साइंटिस्ट रेनर वीस, किप थोर्न, बैरी बैरिश को किस काम के लिए नोबेल पुरस्कार दिया गया है?

उ० - गुरुत्वाकर्षण तरंगों के लिए।

प्र० - मोगादिशू खबरों में है क्योंकि?

उ० - मोगादिशु तुर्की में सबसे बड़ा विदेशी सैन्य अड्डा खोला गया है।

प्र० - 'मुख्मंत्री ग्रामीण सड़क मरम्मत योजना' किस राज्य में शुरू की गई है?

उ०— हिमाचल प्रदेश।

प्र० - भारत का पहला आधार-सक्षम हवाई अड्डा कौन सा है?

उ०— बेंगलुरु।

प्र० - भारतीय रेलवे ने किस देश के साथ 200 किमी प्रति घंटे तक की पैसेंजर ट्रेनों की गति बढ़ाने के इरादे से एक संयुक्त घोषणा पत्र पर हस्ताक्षर किए?

उ० - जर्मनी।

प्र० - बिरसा मुंडा जनजातीय विश्वविद्यालय किस राज्य में खोला गया है?

उ० - गुजरात।

प्र० - चमन क्या है?

उ० - चमन रिमोट सेंसिंग तकनीक का उपयोग करके बागवानी क्षेत्र को बढ़ावा देने वाली परियोजना है जो कृषि मंत्रालय द्वारा शुरू की गई है।

प्र० - कौन सा राज्य मवेशियों के लिए पेइंग गेस्ट (PG) सुविधा प्रदान कर रहा है?

उ० - हरियाणा।

प्र० - सोफिया रोबोट को किस देश ने नागरिकता दी है?

उ०— सऊदी अरब।

प्र० - किस देश ने दुनिया का पहला 3 डी-प्रिंटेड कंक्रीट पुल बनाया?

उ० - इंडोनेशिया।

प्र० - जैकिंडा अर्डर्न कौन है?

उ० - न्यूजीलैंड की सबसे कम उम्र की महिला प्रधान मंत्री।

प्र० - रिचर्ड विलबर, जिनका हाल ही में निधन हो गया, किस क्षेत्र से संबंधित हैं?

उ० - साहित्य वे कवि थे।

प्र० - 'मेडवाच' एक मोबाइल हेल्थ ऐप किसके द्वारा लॉन्च किया गया है?

उ० - भारतीय वायु सेना।

प्र० - भारत के किस शहर में पहला समुद्री पुलिस प्रशिक्षण अनुसंधान संस्थान खोला गया है?

उ० - द्वारका।

UPSC PRELIMS CURRENT AFFAIRS QUESTIONS ANSWERS IN ENGLISH PART-1

UPSC, PRELIMS, CURRENT AFFAIRS,  QUESTIONS, ANSWERS, IN ENGLISH

UPSC PRELIMS CURRENT AFFAIRS QUESTIONS ANSWERS IN ENGLISH READ MORE VISIT OUR OTHERS ARTICLES FOR UPSC PRELIMS AND MAINS GENERAL STUDIES.

Q - PV Sindhu is appointed which state swachh mission brand ambassador?

A - Andhra pradesh

Q -  Scientist Rainer Weiss, Kip Thorne, Barry Barish have been given Nobel Prize for which work?

A - For Gravitational Waves.

Q - Mogadishu is in news because?

A - Biggest overseas military base is opened in Mogadishu Turkey

Q - 'MukhyaMantri Rural Road Repair Scheme' is started in which state?

A- Himachal Pradesh.

Q - Which airport is India's first Aadhaar-enabled airport?

A- Bengaluru.

Q - Indian Railways sign a joint declaration of Intent with which country to increasing the speed of passenger trains upto 200 kmph?

A - Germany.

Q - Birsa Munda Tribal University is opened in which state?

A - Gujarat.

Q - What is CHAMAN ?

A - CHAMAN is the project to boost the
horticulture sector by using remote sensing technology launched by Agriculture Ministry.

Q - Which state is providing paying guest (PG) facility for the cattle?

A - Haryana.

Q - Which country has given citizenship to Sophia robot?

A-  Saudi Arabia.

Q - Which country made world’s first 3D-printed concrete bridge?

A - Indonesia.

Q - Who is Jacinda Ardern?

A - The youngest woman Prime Minister of New Zealand.

Q - Richard Wilbur, who recently passed away, is related which field?

A - literature he was the poet.

Q - 'MedWatch' a mobile health app is launched by?

A - Indian Air Force.

Q - In Which city India's first marine police training and research institute is opened?

A - Dwarka.



UPSC PRELIMS SAMPLE QUESTION ANSWER PART - 1

UPSC, PRELIMS, SAMPLE QUESTION ANSWER,

These are some samples questions for UPSC prelims general studies paper-1. We are not guaranteed to the accuracy of its answers, please also verify from other sources.

Q1 - Despite being a high saving economy, capital formation may not result in significant increase in output due to?
A - high capital-output ratio.

Q2 - After the Santhal Uprising subsided, in 1855-56 what were the measures taken by the colonial government?
A - 'Santhal Paraganas' were created. and It became illegal for a Santhal to transfer land to a non-Santhal.

Q3 - What is Human capital formation 
concept explain in terms of a process which enables?
A - Human capital formation concept process enables the increasing the knowledge, skill levels and capacities of
the people of the country and accumulation of intangible wealth.

Q4 - Economically, the results of the British rule in India in the 19th century was?
A- commercialization of Indian agriculture and Ruin of artisans and handicraftsmen of India and cheap, machine made goods
imports flooded the Indian market.


Q5 - If the President of India exercises his power as provided under Article 356 of 
the Constitution of a particular State, then?
A - The powers of the Legislature of that State shall be exercisable by or under
the authority of the Parliament and The Parliament passes the state legislative bills and the state budget.

Q6 - What are GPS (Global positioning system) application?
A -  Location - determining a position
 Navigation - getting from one location to another
Tracking - monitoring object or personal movement
 Mapping - creating maps of the world
Timing - bringing precise timing to the world

Q7 - What are Treasury bills?
A - Treasury bills are issued by the Government of India and not issued by the state Governments. Treasury bills issued for three tenors, 91 day, 182 day and 364 day. Treasury bills are zero coupon securities and pay no interest. They are issued at a
discount and redeemed at the face value at maturity.

Q8 -What is the concept of  "Conservation Agriculture"?
A -  The concept of  Conservation Agriculture is the process by which includes soil management practices that minimize the disruption of the soil's structure, composition and natural biodiversity. no burning of crop leave and minimum use of harmful pest control.

Q9 - What is The term "sixth mass 
extinction/sixth extinction" is often used in the news?
A - The term sixth mass is related to Mankind's over-exploitation/misuse of
natural resources, framentation/loss of natural habitats, destruction of ecosystems, pollution and global climate change.

Q10 - How many satellite in Indian 
Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS),
A - Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), have Seven satellites, IRNSS has three satellites
in geostationary and four satellites in geosynchronous orbits.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT UPSC GENERAL STUDIES PAPER THIRD NOTES

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, UPSC GENERAL STUDIES, PAPER THIRD , NOTES

Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, politics, and social well-being of its citizen. The term Economic development frequently used  by economists, politicians,
and others in the 20th and 21st centuries. "Modernization, "westernization", and "industrialization" are the terms often used while discussing economic development. Economic development has a direct relationship with the environment and environmental issues.
Economic development is a policy which increase the market productivity and rise in GDP. Consequently, as economist Amartya Sen points out, "economic growth is one aspect of the process of economic development". economic development has been understood since the World War II to involve economic growth, namely the increases in per capita income, Economic development originated in the post-war period of reconstruction initiated by the United States. More than half the people of the world are living in conditions approaching misery. Their food is inadequate, they are victims of disease. Their economic life is primitive and stagnant. the systematic, long term government investments in transportation, housing, education, and healthcare are necessary to ensure sustainable economic growth in emerging countries. Economic growth deals with increase in the level of output, but economic development is related to increase in output coupled with improvement in social and political welfare of people within a country. Therefore, economic development encompasses both growth and welfare values. According to Ranis et al, economic growth and development is a two-way relationship. the first chain consists of economic growth benefiting human development, since economic growth is likely to lead families and individuals to use their heightened incomes to increase expenditures,  in second chain human development. At the same time, with the increased consumption and spending, health, education, and infrastructure systems grow and contribute to economic growth.
The relationship between human development and economic development can be explained in three ways. First, increase in average income leads to improvement in health and nutrition known as Capability Expansion through Economic Growth.
Second, social outcomes can only be improved by reducing income poverty known as Capability Expansion through Poverty Reduction.
Third, social outcomes can also be improved with essential services such as education, healthcare, and clean drinking water known as Capability Expansion through Social Services.

INDIAN CONSTITUTION HISTORIC UNDERPINNING UPSC GS-2 NOTES

INDIAN CONSTITUTION, HISTORIC, UNDERPINNING,  UPSC GS-2 NOTES



Indian constitution historical underpinnings, The preamble of the Constitution of India is the heart and soul of the Constitution. The preamble can be referred to as the preface which highlights
the entire Constitution. It was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly and came into effect on 26 January 1950. And the day is celebrated as Republic day in India. As originally enacted the preamble described the state as a "sovereign democratic republic", to which the terms "Secular" and "Socialist" were later added by the 42nd Amendment.
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens
 JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
 LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
 EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all
 FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
 IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this  26th day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
Sovereignty means the independent authority of a State. It means that it has the power to legislate on any subject; and that it is not subject to the control of any other State or external power. the word ‘sovereign’ is taken from article 5 of the constitution of Ireland. Sovereignty has two aspects- external and internal.
External sovereignty means the independence of a country of the will of other country in international law.
Internal sovereignty means the relationship between the states and the individuals within its territory. Internal sovereignty relates to internal and domestic affairs, and is divided into four organs, namely, the executive, the legislature, the judiciary and the administrative.
 The term socialist means to democratic socialism, i.e. achievement of socialist goals through democratic, evolutionary and non-violent means. through distributive justice, not concentrated in the hands of few, and that the government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socio-economic inequalities.
By the 42nd Amendment in 1976, the term "Secular" was also incorporated in the Preamble. the term "Secular" means There is no difference of religion i.e. all religion are equally respected and there is no state religion. All the citizens of India are allowed to profess, practice and propagate any religion.
The term Democratic means that The people of India elect their governments by a system of universal adult franchise, known as "one man one vote". Every citizen of India 18 years of age and above and not debarred by law is entitled to vote. The word 'democratic' not only refers to political but also to social & economic democracy.
The Word Republic means the head of state is elected and not a hereditary monarch. the republic is an entity in which the head of state is elected, directly or indirectly, for a fixed tenure. Thus, India has a President who is elected and has a fixed term of office for the five years.
India seeks social, economic and political justice to ensure equality to its citizens.
Social Justice means the absence of socially privileged classes in the society and no discrimination against any citizen on the basis of caste, creed, color, religion, gender or place of birth. India eliminating all forms of exploitations from the society.
Economic Justice means no discrimination between man and woman on the basis of income, wealth and economic status. equitable distribution of wealth, economic equality, the end of monopolistic control over means of production and distribution, decentralisation of economic resources, and the securing of adequate opportunities to all for earning their living.
Political Justice means equal, free and fair opportunities for the all indian citizen to participate in the political process. It grant of equal political rights to all the people without discrimination. The Constitution of India provides for a liberal democracy in which all the people have the right and freedom to participate.
Liberty means The idea of Liberty refers to the freedom on the activities of Indian citizens in term of what they think, their manner of expressions and the way they wish to follow up their thoughts in action. However, liberty does not mean freedom to do anything, and it must be exercised within the constitutional limits.
Equality envisages that no section of the society enjoys special privileges and individuals are provided with adequate opportunities without any discrimination: all are equal before the law.
Fraternity refers to a feeling of brotherhood and a sense of belonging with the country among its people. It leaves no room for regionalism, communalism, casteism etc., which hinders the Unity of the State.
The Preamble declares that fraternity has to assure two things—the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation. The word 'integrity' has been added to the Preamble by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment (1976).
It has been clarified by the Supreme Court of India that, being a part of the Constitution, the Preamble can be subjected to Constitutional Amendments exercised under article 368, however, the basic structure cannot be altered.
The preamble has been amended only once so far. On 18 December 1976, during the Emergency in India, the Indira Gandhi government pushed through several changes in the Forty-second Amendment of the constitution. A committee under the chairmanship of Sardar Swaran Singh recommended that this amendment the words "socialist" and "secular" were added between the words "Sovereign" and "democratic" and the words "unity of the Nation" were changed to "unity and integrity of the Nation".

THE INDIAN ART UPSC GENERAL STUDIES PAPER FIRST NOTES

THE INDIAN ART,  UPSC GENERAL STUDIES PAPER FIRST,



Indian art consists of a variety of art forms, such as pottery, sculpture, visual arts, paintings, performing arts and textile arts.
The origin of Indian art can be traced to pre-historic settlements in the 3rd
millennium BC to modern times, Indian art has cultural influences, as well as religious influences such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and Islam.
Rock art of India includes rock carvings, engravings and paintings, commonly depicted scenes of human life alongside animals, and hunts with stone implements. Their style varied with region and age, but the most common characteristic was a red wash made using a powdered mineral called geru, which is a form of Iron Oxide.
Indus Valley Civilization (c. 5000 BCE – c. 1500 BCE)  arts mainly consist of gold, terracotta and stone figurines of girls in dancing poses reveal the presence of some forms of dance. Additionally, the terracotta figurines included cows, bears, monkeys, and dogs. The animal depicted on a seals was bull, zebra with a majestic horn, The most famous piece is the bronze Dancing Girl of Mohenjo-Daro and a figure on seals standing on its head, and another sitting cross-legged in what some call a yoga-like pose. This figure, sometimes known as a Pashupati, has been variously identified. Sir John Marshall identified a resemblance to the Hindu god, Shiva. After the end of the Indus Valley Civilization, there is a absence of anytype art of any great degree of sophistication until the Buddhist era.
The north Indian Maurya Empire flourished from 322 BCE to 185 BCE, The emperor Ashoka, who died in 232 BCE, adopted Buddhism constructed several large stupas and The famous Lion piller of Ashoka, with four lion, was adopted as the official Emblem of India after Indian independence.
The Buddhist art (c. 1 BCE – c. 500 CE), Sanchi, Bharhut and Amaravati, Stupas were constructed. Stupas were surrounded by ceremonial fences with four profusely carved toranas or ornamental gateways facing the cardinal directions. the walls of the stupa itself can be heavily decorated with reliefs, mostly illustrating the lives of the Buddha.
In Shunga Dynasty (c. 185 BCE – 72 BCE) The Great Stupa was enlarged to its present diameter of 120 feet, covered with a stone casing, topped with a balcony and umbrella, and encircled with a stone railing during the Shunga Dynasty c. 150 BCE - 50 BCE.
Satavahana dynasty (c. 1st/3rd century BCE – c. 3rd century CE) in Satavahana dynasty was originally under the rule in central India, and after 1st century CE, in the south region. During Satavahana dynasty, a great number of significant Buddhist artworks were produced because Satavahana art is influenced by Buddhism to a huge extent. Three of the most important Buddhist structures are stupas, temples, and prayer-halls. Satavahanas issued coins primarily in copper, lead and potin. Later on, silver came into use when producing coins. The coins usually have detailed portraits of rulers and inscriptions written in the language of Tamil and Telugu.
Kushan Empire (c. 30 CE - c. 375 CE) Officially established by Kujula Kadphises, the first Kushan emperor who united the Yuezhi tribes, Kushan empire was a syncretic empire in central Asia, including the region of Gandhara and other parts of what is now Pakistan. From 127 to 151 CE, Gandharan reached its peak under the reign of Kanishka the Great. In this period, Kushan art inherited the Greco-Buddhist art.
Gupta art (c. 320 CE – c. 550 CE) The Gupta period marked the "golden age" of classical Hinduism, the early architectural style of Hindu temples were sophisticated and scientific in nature, consisting large courtyards, garbh grah, siting area, prayer area a large complex and well planned architecture. temple plans with multiple shikharas (towers) and mandapas (halls) of various utility as stated in veda outlining building of temples.
Middle Kingdoms and the Late Medieval period (c. 600 CE – c. 1300 CE)
Dynasties of South India (c. 3rd century CE – c. 1300 CE). the Chola, Chera and Pandya Tamil dynasties, situated at south of the Vindhya mountains. The Shore Temple at Mamallapuram constructed by the Pallavas symbolizes early Hindu architecture, with its monolithic rock relief and sculptures of Hindu deities. They were succeeded by Chola rulers. The Chola period is also known for its bronze sculptures, the lost-wax casting technique and fresco paintings.
Temples of Khajuraho (c. 800 CE – c. 1000 CE) The Khajuraho Recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Khajuraho group of monuments were constructed by the Chandela Rajput dynasties.
During the reign of Akbar (1556—1605), the number of painters grew from around 30 during the creation of the Hamzanama in the mid-1560s, to around 130 by the mid 1590s. With the death of Akbar, his son Jahangir (1605–1627) took the throne.
Jahangir was succeeded by Shah Jahan (1628–1658), whose most notable architectural contribution is the Taj Mahal.
British period (1841–1947).
British colonial rule had a great impact on Indian art. Old patrons of art became less wealthy and influential, and Western art more ubiquitous as the British Empire established schools of art in major cities, e.g. the Bombay Art Society in 1888.
With the Swadeshi Movement gaining momentum by 1905, Indian artists attempted to resuscitate the cultural identities suppressed by the British, rejecting the Romanticized style of the Company paintings and the mannered work of Raja Ravi Varma and his followers. Thus was created what is known today as the Bengal School of Art, led by the reworked Asian styles (with an emphasis on Indian nationalism) of Abanindranath Tagore (1871—1951), who has been referred to as the father of Modern Indian art. Other artists of the Tagore family, such as Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941) and Gaganendranath Tagore (1867–1938) as well as new artists of the early 20th century such as Amrita Sher-Gil (1913–1941) were responsible for introducing Avant-garde western styles into Indian Art. Many other artists like Jamini Roy and later S.H. Raza took inspiration from folk traditions. In 1944, K.C.S. Paniker founded the Progressive Painters' Association (PPA) thus giving rise to the "madras movement" in art. 

FUNDAMENTALS OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT UPSC OPTIONAL MANAGEMENT PAPER SECOND NOTES

FUNDAMENTALS OF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT,  UPSC OPTIONAL MANAGEMENT,



Operations management is the branch of management which deals with designing and controlling the process of the production of goods and services. Operations management main function is
to ensuring the business operations as efficient as possible by using as few resources as needed and meeting the production and product quality as per customer requirements. Operations management primarily  function is to planning, organizing and supervising of the production, manufacturing or to deliver  services. It deals with managing an entire production system. Operation management covers sectors like banking systems, hospitals, companies, working with suppliers, customers, and using technology. Operations is one of the major functions in an organization along with supply chains, marketing, finance and human resources. The operations management manages of both the strategic and day-to-day production of goods and services.
In managing manufacturing or service operations several types of decisions are made including operations strategy, product design, process design, quality management, capacity, facilities planning, production planning and inventory control. Each of these requires an ability to analyze the current situation and find better solutions to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of manufacturing or deliver the service.
The history of production and operation systems began around 5000 B.C. when Sumerian priests developed the ancient system of recording inventories, loans, taxes, and business transactions. The next major historical application of operation systems occurred in 4000 B.C. It was during this time that the Egyptians started using planning, organization, and control in large projects such as the construction of the pyramids. By 1100 B.C.,
In 1883, Frederick Winslow Taylor introduced the stopwatch method for accurately measuring the time to perform each single task of a complicated job. He developed the scientific study of productivity and identifying how to coordinate different tasks to eliminate wasting of time and increase the quality of work. The next generation of scientific study occurred with the development of work sampling and predetermined motion time systems (PMTS).
Service Industries: At the turn of the twentieth century, the services industries were already developed, but largely fragmented. In 1900 the U.S. service industry consisted of banks, professional services, schools, general stores, railroads and telegraph. Services were largely local in nature and owned by entrepreneurs and families.
 In 1911 Taylor published "The Principles of Scientific Management", in which he characterized scientific management as:
1-The development of a true science;
2-The scientific selection of the worker;
3-The scientific education and development of the worker;
4-Intimate friendly cooperation between the management and the workers.
In 1983 J.N Edwards published his "MRP and Kanban-American style" in which he described JIT goals in terms of seven zeros:] zero defects, zero (excess) lot size, zero setups, zero breakdowns, zero handling, zero lead time and zero surging. This period also marks the spread of Total Quality Management (TQM) in Japan, ideas initially developed by American authors such as Deming, Juran and Armand V. Feigenbaum. TQM is a strategy for implementing and managing quality improvement on an organizational basis, this includes: participation, work culture, customer focus, supplier quality improvement and integration of the quality system with business goals. Schnonberger identified seven fundamentals principles essential to the Japanese approach:
1-Process control: SPC and worker responsibility over quality
2-Easy able -to-see quality: boards, gauges, meters, etc. and poka-yoke
3-Insistence on compliance: "quality first"
4-Line stop: stop the line to correct quality problems
5-Correcting one's own errors: worker fixed a defective part if he produced it
6-The 100% check: automated inspection techniques and foolproof machines
7-Continual improvement: ideally zero defects
In 1987 the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), recognizing the growing importance of quality, issued the ISO 9000, a family of standards related to quality management systems. There standards apply to both manufacturing and service organizations. There has been some controversy regarding the proper procedures to follow and the amount of paperwork involved, but much of that has improved in current ISO 9000 revisions.