ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND VETERINARY SCIENCE SYLLABUS FOR UPSC IAS CIVIL SERVICES MAINS EXAMINATION
1. Animal Nutrition :
1.1 Partitioning of food energy within the animal. Direct
and indirect calorimetry. Carbon—nitrogen balance
and comparative slaughter methods. Systems for
expressing energy value of foods in ruminants, pigs
and poultry. Energy requirements for maintenance,
growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg, wool, and meat
1.2 Latest advances in protein nutrition. Energy protein
inter-relationships. Evaluation of protein quality. Use
of NPN compounds in ruminant diets. Protein
requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy,
lactation, egg, wool and meat production.
1.3 Major and trace minerals—Their sources,
physiological functions and deficiency symptoms.
Toxic minerals. Mineral interactions. Role of
fatsoluble and water—soluble vitamins in the body,
their sources and deficiency symptoms.
1.4 Feed additives—methane inhibitors, probiotics,
enzymes, antibiotics, hormones, oligosaccharides,
antioxidants, emulsifiers, mould inhibitors, buffers
etc. Use and abuse of growth promoters like
harmones and antibiotics—latest concepts.
1.5 Conservation of fodders. Storage of feeds and feed
ingredients. Recent advances in feed technology and
feed processing. Anti-nutritional and toxic factors
present in livestock feeds. Feed analysis and quality
control. Digestibility trials—direct, indirect and
indicator methods. Predicting feed intake in grazing animals.
1.6 Advances in ruminant nutrition. Nutrient
requirements. Balanced rations. Feeding of calves,
pregnant, work animals and breeding bulls. Strategies
for feeding milch animals during different stages of
lactation cycle. Effect of feeding on milk composition.
Feeding of goats for meat and milk production.
Feeding of sheep for meat and wool production.
1.7 Swine Nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Creep, starter,
grower and finisher rations. Feeding of pigs for lean
meat production. Low cost rations for swine.
1.8 Poultry nutrition. Special features of poultry nutrition.
Nutrient requirements for meat and egg production.
Formulation of rations for different classes of layers
2. Animal Physiology :
2.1 Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration;
excretion. Endocrine glands in health and disease.
2.2 Blood constituents.—Properties and functions-blood
cell formation—Haemoglobin synthesis and
chemistry-plasma proteins production, classification
and properties, coagulation of blood; Haemorrhagic
volume—Plasma expanders-Buffer systems in blood.
Biochemical tests and their significance in disease
2.3 Circulation.—Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle,
heart sounds, heart beat, electrocardiograms. Work
and efficiency of heart—effect of ions on heart
function-metabolism of cardiac muscle, nervous and
chemical regulation of heart, effect of temperature
and stress on heart, blood pressuer and
hypertension, osmotic regulation, arterial pulse,
vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock. Coronary
and pulmonary circulation, Blood-Brain barrier
Cerebrospinal fluid-circulation in birds.
2.4 Respiration.—Mechanism of respiration, Transport
and exchange of gases-neural control of respiration-
Chemo-receptors-hypoxia-respiration in birds.
2.5 Excretion.—Structure and function of kidney-
formation of urine-methods of studying renal
function-renal regulation of acid-base balance :
physiological constituents of urine-renal failure-
passive venous congestion-Urinary secretion in
chicken-Sweat glands and their function. Bio-
chemical test for urinary dysfunction.
2.6 Endocrine glands.—Functional disorders—their
symptoms and diagnosis. Synthesis of hormones,
mechanism and control of secretion—hormonal
receptors-classification and function.
2.7 Growth and Animal Production.—Prenatal and
postnatal growth, maturation, growth curves,
measures of growth, factors affecting growth,
conformation, body composition, meat quality.
2.8 Physiology of Milk Production, Reproduction and
Digestion.—Current status of hormonal control of
mammary development, milk secretion and milk
ejection. Male and Female reproductive organs, their
components and functions. Digestive organs and
2.9 Environmental Physiology.—Physiological relations
and their regulation; mechanisms of adaptation,
environmental factors and regulatory mechanisms
involved in animal behaviour, climatology—various
parameters and their importance. Animal ecology.
Physiology of behaviour. Effect of stress on health
3. Animal Reproduction :
Semen quality.—Preservation and Artificial
Insemination—Components of semen, composition
of spermatozoa, chemical and physical properties of
ejaculated semen, factors affecting semen in vivo
and in vitro. Factors affecting semen production and
quality, preservation, composition of diluents, sperm
concentration, transport of diluted semen. Deep
freezing techniques in cows, sheep, goats, swine and
poultry. Detection of oestrus and time of insemination
for better conception. Anoestrus and repeat
4. Livestock Production and Management :
4.1 Commercial Dairy Farming.—Comparison of dairy
farming in India with advanced countries. Dairying
under mixed farming and as specialized farming,
economic dairy farming. Starting of a dairy farm,
Capital and land requirement, organization of the
dairy farm. Opportunities in dairy farming, factors
determining the efficiency of dairy animal. Heard
recording, budgeting cost of milk production, pricing
policy; Personnel Management. Developing Practical
and Economic rations for dairy cattle; supply of
greens throughout the year, feed and fodder
requirements of Dairy Farm. Feeding regimes for
young stock and bulls, heifers and breeding animals;
new trends in feeding young and adult stock; Feeding
4.2 Commercial meat, egg and wool production.—
Development of practical and economic rations for
sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry. Supply of
greens, fodder, feeding regimes for young and mature
stock. New trends in enhancing production and
management. Capital and land requirements and
4.3 Feeding and management of animals under drought,
flood and other natural calamities.
5. Genetics and Animal Breeding :
5.1 History of animal genetics. Mitosis and Meiosis :
Mendelian inheritance; deviations to Mendelian genetics; Expression of genes; Linkage and crossing
over; Sex determination, sex influenced and sex
limited characters; Blood groups and polymorphism;
Chromosome aberrations; Cytoplasmic inheritance,
Gene and its structure; DNA as a genetic material;
Genetic code and protein synthesis; Recombinant
DNA technology. Mutations, types of mutations,
methods for detecting mutations and mutation rate,
5.2 Population Genetics applied to Animal Breeding—
Quantitative Vs. Qualitative traits; Hardy Weinberg
Law; Population Vs. Individual; Gene and genotypic
frequency; Forces changing gene frequency;
Random drift and small populations; Theory of path
coefficient; Inbreeding, methods of estimating
inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding;
Effective population size; Breeding value, estimation
of breeding value, dominance and epistatic deviation;
Partitioning of variation; Genotype X environment
correlation and genotype X environment interaction;
role of multiple measurements; Resemblance between
5.3 Breeding Systems.—Breeds of livestsock and
Poultry. Heritability, repeatability and genetic and
phenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation
and precision of estimates; Aids to selection and
their relative merits; Individual, pedigree, family and
within family selection; Pregnency testing; Methods
of selection; Construction of selection indices and
their uses; Comparative evaluation of genetic gains
through various selection methods; Indirect
selection and correlated response; Inbreeding, out
breeding, upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis
of breeds; Crossing of inbred lines for commercial
production; Selection for general and specific
combining ability; Breeding for threshold characters.
6. Extension :
Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and principles
of extension. Different Methods adopted to educate
farmers under rural conditions. Generation of
technology, its transfer and feedback. Problems and
constraints in transfer of technology. Animal
husbandry programmes for rural development.
1. Anatomy, Pharmacology and Hygiene :
1.1 Histology and Histological Techniques : Paraffin
embedding technique of tissue processing and H.E.
staining—Freezing microtomy—Microscopy Bright
field microscope and electron microscope. Cytology-
structure of cell organells and inclusions; cell
division-cell types—Tissues and their classification-
embryonic and adult tissues—Comparative
histology of organs—Vascular, Nervous, digestive,
respiratory, musculo-skeletal and urogenital
1.2 Embryology.—Embryology of vertebrates with
special reference to aves and domestic mammals
membranes and placentation-types of placenta in
domestic mammals-Teratology-twins and twinning-
organogenesis-germ layer derivatives-endodermal,
mesodermal and ectodermal derivatives.
1.3 Bovine Anatomy.—Regional Anatomy : Paranasal
sinuses of OX— surface anatomy of salivary glands.
Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary, mandi-
buloalveolar, mental and cornnal nerve block.
Regional anatomy of paravertebral nerves, pudental
nerve, median, ulnar and radial nervestibial, fibular
and digital nerves—Cranial nerves-structures
involved in epidural anaesthesia-superficial lymph
nodes-surface anatomy of visceral organs of thoracic,
abdominal and pelvic cavities-comparative-features
of locomotor apparatus and their application in the
biomechanics of mammalian body.
1.4 Anatomy of Fowl.—Musculo-skeletal system-
functional anatomy in relation to respiration and
flying, digestion and egg production.
1.5 Pharmacology and therapeutics drugs.—Cellular
level of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics.
Drugs acting on fluids and electrolyte balance. Drugs
acting on Autonomic nervous system. Modern
concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative
anaesthetics. Autocoids. Antimicrobials and
principles of chemotherapy in microbial infections.
Use of hormones in therapeutics—chemotherapy of
parasitic infections. Drug and economic concerns in
the Edible tissues of animals—chemotherapy of
Neoplastic diseases. Toxicity due to “insecticides,
plants, metals, non-metals, zootoxins and
1.6 Veterinary Hygiene with reference to water, air and
habitation.—Assessment of pollution of water, air
and soil—Importance of climate in animal health—
effect of environment on animal function and
performance relationship between industrialisation
and animal agriculture—animal housing requirements
for specific categories of domestic animals viz.
pregnant cows and sows, milking cows, broiler
birds—stress, strain and productivity in relation to
2. Animal Diseases :
2.1 Etiology, epidemiology pathogenesis, symptoms,
post-moretem lesions, diagnosis, and control of
infectious diseases of cattle, sheep and goat, horses,
pigs and poultry.
2.2 Etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis,
treatment of production diseases of cattle, horse,
pig and poultry.
2.3 Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.
2.4 Diagnosis and treatment of non-specific conditions
like impaction, Bloat, Diarrhoea, Indigestion,
dehydration, stroke, poisioning.
2.5 Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.
2.6 Principles and methods of immunisation of animals
against specific diseases—hard immunity—disease
free zones—‘zero’ disease concept—
2.7 Anaesthesia.—local, regional and general-
prenesthetic medication. Symptoms and surgical
interference in fractures and dislocation. Hernia,
choking abomassal displacement—Caesarian
2.8 Disease investigation techniques.—Materials for
laboratory investigation—Establishment. Animal
Health Centres—Disease free zone.
3. Veterinary Public Health :
3.1 Zoonoses.—Classification, definition, role of animals
and birds in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic
diseases—occupational zoonotic diseases.
3.2 Epidemiology.—Principle, definition of
epidemiological terms, application of epidemiological
measures in the study of diseases and disease control.
Epidemiological features of air, water and food borne
infections. OIE regulation, WTO, sanitary and
3.3 Veterinary Jurisprudence.—Rules and Regulations
for improvement of animal quality and prevention of
animal diseases—State and Central Rules for
prevention of animal and animal product borne
diseases—S.P. C.A.—Veterolegal cases—
Certificates—Materials and Methods of collection
of samples for veterolegal investigation.
4. Milk and Milk Products Technology :
4.1 Market Milk.—Quality, testing and grading of raw
milk. Processing, packaging, storing, distribution,
marketing defects and their control. Preparation of
the following milks : Pasteurized, standardized, toned,
double toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted,
recombined and flavoured milks. Preparation of
cultured milks, cultures and their management,
yoghurt, Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand. Preparation of
flavoured and sterilized milks. Legal standards.
Sanitation requirement for clean and safe milk and
for the milk plant equipment.
4.2 Milk Products Technology.—Selection of raw
materials, processing, storing, distributing and
marketing milk products such as Cream, Butter, Ghee,
Khoa, Channa, Cheese, condensed, evaporated, dried
milk and baby food, lce cream and Kulfi; by-products,
whey products, butter milk, lactose and casein.
Testing, grading, judging milk products—BIS and
Agmark specifications, legal standards, quality
control nutritive properties. Packaging processing
and operational control. Costing of dairy products.
5. Meat Hygiene and Technology :
5.1 Meat Hygiene
5.1.1 Ante mortem care and management of food animals,
stunning, slaughter and dressing operations; abattoir
requirements and designs; Meat inspection
procedures and judgement of carcass meat cuts—
grading of carcass meat cuts—duties and functions
of Veterinarians in wholesome meat production.
5.1.2 Hygienic methods of handling production of meat.—
Spoilage of meat and control measures—Post-
slaughter physicochemical changes in meat and
factors that influence them—Quality improvement
methods—Adulteration of meat and detection—
Regulatory provisions in Meat trade and Industry.
5.2 Meat Technology
5.2.1 Physical and chemical characteristics of meat.—
Meat emulsions—Methods of preservation of
meat—Curing, canning, irradiation, packaging of meat
and meat products, processing and formulations.
5.3 By-products.—Slaughter house by-products and
their utilisation—Edible and inedible by products—
Social and economic implications of proper utilisation
of slaughter house by-products—Organ products
for food and pharmaceuticals.
5.4 Poultry Products Technology.—Chemical
composition and nutritive value of poultry meat, pre-
slaughter care and management. Slaughtering
techniques, inspection, preservation of poultry meat
and products. Legal and BIS standards.
Structure composition and nutritive value of eggs
Microbial spoilage. Preservation and maintenance.
Marketing of poultry meat, eggs and products.
5.5 Rabbit/Fur Animal farming.—Rabbit meat
production. Disposal and utilization of fur and wool
and recycling of waste by products. Grading of wool.