1.1 Meaning, Scope and development of Anthropology.
1.2 Relationships with other disciplines : Social Sciences,
behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical
Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.
1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope andr elevance
(a) Social-cultural Anthropology.
(b) Biological Anthropology.
(c) Archaeological Anthropology.
(d) Linguistic Anthropology.
1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man :
(a) Biological and Cultural factors in human
(b) Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre-Darwinian,
Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).
(c) Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of
terms and concepts of evolutionary biology
(Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule,
parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation,
and mosaic evolution).
1.5 Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and
Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal
and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate
Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates;
Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man
and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and
its implications.
1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and
geographical distribution of the following :
(a) Plio-preleistocene hominids inSouth and East
(b) Homo erectus : Africa (Paranthropus), Europe
(Homo erectus (heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo
erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis.
(c) Neanderthal man—La-chapelle-aux-saints
(Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).
(d) Rhodesian man.
(e) Homo saoiens—Cromagnon, Grimaldi and
1.7 The biological basis of Life : The Cell, DNA structure
and replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation,
Chromosomes, and Cell Division.
1.8 (a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology.
Chronology : Relative and Absolute Dating
(b) Cultural Evolution—Broad Outlines of
Prehistoric cultures :
(i) Paleolithic
(ii) Mesolithic
(iii) Neolithic
(iv) Chalcolithic
(v) Copper-Bronze Age
(vi) Iron Age
2.1 The Nature of Culture : The concept and
Characteristics of culture and civilization;
Ethnocentrism vis-a-vis cultural Relativism.
2.2 The Nature of Society : Concept of Society; Society
and Culture; Social Institution; Social groups; and
Social stratification.
2.3 Marriage : Definition and universality; Laws of
marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy,
hypogamy, incest taboo); Type of marriage
(monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage).
Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations
(preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage
payments (bride wealth and dowry).
2.4 Family : Definition and universality; Family,
household and domestic groups; functions of family;
Types of family (from the perspectives of structure,
blood relation, marriage, residence and succession);
Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist
movements on family.
2.5 Kinship : Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and
types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral
Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan,
phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship terminology
(descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation
and Complimentary Filiation;Decent and Alliance.
3. Economic Organization : Meaning, scope and
relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and
Substantivist debate; Principles governing
production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity,
redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting
on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening,
pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture;
globalization and indigenous economic systems.
4. Political Organization and Social Control : Band,
tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of
power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law
and justice in simple Societies.
5. Religion : Anthropological approaches to the study
of religion (evolutionary, psychological and
functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and
profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal
and peasant Societies (animism, animatism, fetishism,
naturism and totemism); religion, magic and science
distinguished; magico-religious functionaries (priest,
shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).
6. Anthropological theories :
(a) Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and
(b) Historical particularism (Boas) Diffusionism
(British, German and American)
(c) Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural—
Functionlism (Radcliffe-Brown)
(d) Structuralism (L’evi-Strauss and E. Leach)
(e) Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead,
Linton, Kardiner and Cora-du Bois)
(f) Neo—evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward,
Sahlins and Service)
(g) Cultural materialism (Harris)
(h) Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner,
Schneider and Geertz)
(i) Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
(j) Post-modernism in anthropology.
7. Culture, Language and Communication :
Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal
and non-verbal communication; social contex of
language use.
8. Research methods in Anthropology :
(a) Fieldwork tradition in anthropology
(b) Distinction between technique, method and
(c) Tools of data collection : observation, interview,
schedules, questionnaire, case study, genealogy,
life-history, oral history, secondary sources of
information, participatory methods.
(d) Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
9.1 Human Genetics : Methods and Application :
Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family
study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child,
co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal
and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods,
immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and
recombinant technologies.
9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single
factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic
inheritance in man.
9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection,
Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes
and changes which bring down frequency-mutation,
isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic
drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous
mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous
and cousin marriages.
9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man,
(a) Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).
(b) Sex chromosomal aberration- Klinefelter (XXY),
Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and
other syndromic disorders.
(c) Autosomal aberrations- Down syndrome, Patau,
Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.
(d) Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic
screening, genetic counseling, human DNA
profiling, gene mapping and genome study.
9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological
variation of non-metric and characters. Racial criteria,
racial traits in relation to heredity and environment;
biological basis of racial classification, racial
differentiation and race crossing in man.
9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker :
ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm,
blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb
level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and
sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-
ecomomic groups.
9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology :
Bio-cultural Adaptations—Genetic and Non-genetic
factors. Man’s physiological responses to
environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude
9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology : Health and disease.
Infectious and non-infectious diseases, Nutritional
deficiency related diseases.
10. Concept of human growth and Development : Stages
of growth—pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood,
adolescence, maturity, senescence.
—Factors affecting growth and development genetic,
environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and
—Ageing and senescence. Theories and
—Biological and chronological longevity. Human
physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for
growth studies.
11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and
other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and
11.2 Demographic theories-biological, social and cultural.
11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing
fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.
12. Applications of Anthropology : Anthropology of
sports, Nutritional anthropology, Anthroplogy in
designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic
Anthroplogy, Methods and principles of personal
identification and reconstruction, Applied human
genetics—Paternity diagnosis, genetic counselling
and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and
medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in
reproductive biology.


1.1 Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization—
Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and
Neolithic-Chalcolithic), Protohistoric (Indus
Civilization). Pre-Harappan, Harappan and post-
Harappan cultures. Contributions of the tribal
cultures to Indian civilization.
1.2 Palaeo—Anthropological evidences from India with
special reference to Siwaliks and Narmada basin
(Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).
1.3. Ethno-archaeology in India: The concept of ethno-
archaeology; Survivals and Parallels among the
hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant
communities including arts and crafts producing
2. Demographic profile of India—Ethnic and linguistic
elements in the Indian population and their
distribution. Indian population—factors influencing
its structure and growth.
3.1 The structure and nature of traditional Indian social
system—Varnashram, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and
3.2 Caste system in India— Structure and characteristics
Varna and caste, Theories of origin of caste system,
Dominant caste, Caste mobility, Future of caste
system, Jajmani system. Tribe-case continuum.
3.3 Sacred Complex and Nature-Man-Spirit Complex.
3.4. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity
of Indian society.
4. Emergence, growth and development in India—
Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century
scholar-administrators. Contributions of Indian
anthropologists to tribal and caste studies.
5.1 Indian Village—Significane of village study in India;
Indian village as a social system; Traditional and
changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste
relations; Agrarian relations in Indian villages; Impact
of globalization on Indian villages.
5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities and their social,
political and economic status.
5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-
cultural change in Indian society: Sanskritization,
Westernization, Modernization; Inter-play of little and
great traditions; Panchayati Raj and social change;
Media and Social change.
6.1 Tribal situation in India—Bio-genetic variability,
linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of the
tribal populations and their distribution.
6.2 Problems of the tribal Communities—Land
alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor
educational facilities, unemployment, under-
employment, health and nutrition.
6.3 Developmental projects and their impact on tribal
displacement and problems of rehabilitation.
Development of forest policy and tribals. Impact of
urbanisation and industrialization on tribal
7.1 Problems of exploitation and deprivation of
Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other
Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for
Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.
7.2 Social change and contemporary tribal societies :
Impact of modern democratic institutions,
development programmes and welfare measures on
tribals and weaker sections.
7.3 The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic conflicts and
political developments; Unrest among tribal
communities; Regionalism and demand for
autonomy; Pseudo-tribalism. Social change among
the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.
8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam
and other religions on tribal societies.
8.2 Tribe and nation state—a comparative study of tribal
communities in India and other countries.
9.1 History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies,
plans, programmes of tribal development and their
implementation. The concept of PTGs (Primitive
Tribal Groups), their distribution, special programmes
for their development. Role of N.G.O.s in tribal
9.2 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.
9.3 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding
of regionalism, communalism and ethnic and political