BOTANY SYLLABUS FOR UPSC IAS CIVIL SERVICES MAINS EXAMINATION

BOTANY SYLLABUS FOR UPSC IAS CIVIL SERVICES MAINS EXAMINATION


                         PAPER-FIRST


1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology :
Structure and reproduction/multiplication of
viruses,viroids, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma;
Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry,
medicine and in control of soil and water pollution;
Prion and Prion hypothesis.
Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria,
mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes; Modes of
infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of
infection and disease resistance/defence;
Physiology of parasitism and control measures.
Fungal toxins. Modelling and disease forecasting;
Plant quarantine.
2. Cryptogams :
Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes-
structure and reproduction from evolutionary
viewpoint; Distribution of Cryptogams in India and
their ecological and economic importance.
3. Phanerogams :
Gymnosperms : Concept of Progymnosperms.
Classification and distribution of gymnosperms. Salient features of Cycadales, Ginkgoales,Coniferales
and Gnetales, their structure and reproduction.
General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and
Cordiaitailes; Geological time scale; Type of fossils
and their study techniques.
Angiosperms : Systematics, anatomy, embryology,
palynology and phylogency.
Taxonomic hierarchy; International Code of Botanical
Nomenclature; Numerical taxomomy and
chemotaxomomy; Evidence from anatomy,
embryology and palynology.
Origin and evolution of angiosperms; Comparative
account of various systems of classification of
angiosperms; Study of angiospermic families—
Mangnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae,
Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae,
Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae,
Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae,
Asteraceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae,
Musaceae and Orchidaceae.
Stomata and their types; Glandular and non-glandular
trichomes; Unusual secondary growth; Anatomy of
C3 and C4 plants; Xylem and phloem differentiation;
Wood anatomy.
Development of male and female gametophytes,
pollination, fertilization; Endosperm—its
development and function. Patterns of embryo
development; Polyembroyony, apomixes;
Applications of palynology; Experimental
embryology including pollen storage and test-tube
fertilization.
4. Plant Resource Development :
Domestication and introduction of plants; Origin of
cultivated plants, Vavilov’s centres of origin. Plants
as sources for food, fodder, fibres, spices, beverages,
edible oils, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber,
gums, resins and dyes; latex, cellulose, starch and
its products; Perfumery; Importance of Ethnobotany
in Indian context; Energy plantations; Botanical
Gardens and Herbaria.
5. Morphogenesis :
Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation;
Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture. Somatic
hybrids and Cybrids; Micropropagation; Somaclonal
variation and its applications; Pollen haploids,
embryo rescue methods and their applications.

                          PAPER-SECOND

1. Cell Biology :
Techniques of cell biology. Prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells—structural and ultrastructural
details; Structure and function of extracellular matrix
(cell wall) and membranes-cell adhesion, membrane
transport and vesicular transport; Structure and
function of cell organelles (chloroplasts,
mitochondria, ER, dictyosomes ribosomes,
endosomes,lysosomes, peroxisomes; Cytoskelaton
and microtubules; Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore
complex; Chromatin and nucleosome; Cell signalling
and cell receptors; Signal transduction Mitosis and
meiosis; molecular basis of cell cycle. Numerical and
structural variations in chromosomes and their
significance; Chromatin organization and packaging
of genome; Polytene chromosomes; B-
chromosomes—structure, behaviour and
significance.
2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution :
Development of genetics, and gene versus allele
concepts (Pseudoalleles); Quantitative genetics and
multiple factors; Incomplete dominance, polygenic
inheritance, multiple alleles; Linkage and crossing
over of gene mapping including molecular maps (idea
of mapping, function); Sex chromosomes and sex-
linked inheritance; sex determination and molecular
basis of sex differentiation; Mutations (biochemical
and molecular basis); Cytoplasmic inheritance and
cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male
sterility).
Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and
proteins; Genetic code and regulation of gene
expression; Gene silencing; Multigene families;
Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism and
theories.
Role of RNA in origin and evolution.
3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics :
Methods of plant breeding—introduction, selection
and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass
selection, bulk method); Mutation, polyploidy, male
sterility and heterosis breeding. Use of apomixes in
plant breeding; DNA sequencing; Genetic
engineering—methods of transfer of genes;
Transgenic crops and biosafety aspects;
Development and use of molecular markers in plant
breeding; Tools and techniques—probe, southern
blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR and FISH.
Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV).
Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and chi-square
tests). Probability and distributions (normal, binomial
and Poisson). Correlation and regression.
4. Physiology and Biochemistry :
Water relations, mineral nutrition and ion transport,
mineral deficiencies. Photosynthesis—photochemical
reactions, photophosphorylation and carbon fixation
pathways; C3, C4 and CAM pathways; Mechanism
of pholem transport, Respiration (anerobic and
aerobic, including fermentation)—electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation;
Photorespiration; Chemiosmotic theory and ATP
synthesis; Lipid metabolism; Nitrogen fixation and
nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes, coenzymes; Energy
transfer and energy conservation. Importance of
secondary metabolites. Pigments as photoreceptors
(plastidial pigments and phytochrome). Plant
movements; Photoperiodism and flowering,
vernalization, senescence; Growth substances—their
chemical nature, role and applications in agri-
horticulture; growth indices, growth movements.
Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal); Fruit
and seed physiology. Dormancy, storage and
germination of seed. Fruit ripening—its molecular
basis and manipulation.
5. Ecology and Plant Geography :
Concept of ecosystem; Ecological factors. Concepts
and dynamics of community; Plant succession.
Concepts of biosphere; Ecosystems; Conservation;
Pollution and its control (including phytoreme-
diation); Plant indicators; Environment (Protection)
Act.
Forest types of India—‘Ecological and ecomomic
importance of forests, afforestation, deforestation
and social forestry; Endangered plants, endemism
IUCN categories, Red Data Books; Biodiversity and
its conservation; Protected Area Network;
Convention of Biological Diversity, Farmers’ Rights;
and Intellectual Property Rights; Concept of
Sustainable Development; Biogeochemical cycles.
Global warming and climatic change; Invasive
species; Environmetal Impact Assessment;
Phytogeographical regions of India.