GEOGRAPHY SYLLABUS FOR UPSC IAS CIVIL SERVICES MAINS EXAMINATION

                            GEOGRAPHY

                            PAPER - FIRST

PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY
Physical Geography :
1. Geomorphology : Factors controlling landform
development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces;
Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts;
Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions
of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift;
Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain
building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis;
Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Land scape
development; Denudation chronology; Channel
morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development;
Applied Geomorphology; Geomorphology, economic
geology and environment.
2. Climatology : Temperature and pressure belts of the
world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric
circulation; Atmospheric stability and instability.
Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet
streams; Air masses and fronto; Temperate and
tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of
precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s
Thornthwaite’s and Trewar Tha’s classification of
world climate; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic
change, and role and response of man in climatic
changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.
3. Oceanography : Bottom topography of the Atlantic,
Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity
of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits;
Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources; biotic,
mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs coral
bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of the sea and
marine pollution.
4. Biogeography : Genesis of soils; Classification and
distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degrada-
tion and conservation; Factors influencing world
distribution of plants and animals; Problems of
deforestation and conservation measures; Social
forestry, agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool
centres.
5. Environmental Geography : Principle ecology;
Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on
ecology and environment; Global and regional
ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their
management and conservation; Environmental
degradation, management and conservation;
Biodiversity and sustainable development;
Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and
remedial measures; Environmental education and
legislation.
Human Geography :
1. Perspectives in Human Geography : Areal
differentiation; Regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution
and locational analysis; Radical, behavioural, human
and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and
secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human
development indix.
2. Economic Geography : World economic
development: measurement and problems; World
resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the
limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of
agricultural regions; Agricultural inputs and
productivity; Food and nutritions problems; Food
security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World
industries: location patterns and problems; Patterns
of world trade.
3. Population and Settlement Geography : Growth and
distribution of world population; Demographic
attributes; Causes and consequences of migration;
Concepts of over-under-and optimum population;
Population theories, world population problems and
policies, Social well-being and quality of life;
Population as social capital.
Types and patterns of rural settlements;
Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy
of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept
of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional
classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence;
Rural-urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and
remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development
of cities.
4. Regional Planning : Concept of a region; Types of
regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth
centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances;
Regional development strategies; Environmental
issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable
development.
5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography :
System analysis in Human geography; Malthusian,
Marxian and demographic transition models; Central
Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and
Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural
location; Weber’s model of industrial location;
Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and
Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.

                        PAPER -SECOND

GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA
1. Physical Setting : Space relationship of India with
neighbouring countries; Structure and relief;
Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic
regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall
patterns; Tropical cyclones and western
disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic
regions; Natural vegetation, Soil types and their
distributions.
2. Resources : Land, surface and ground water,
energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources, Forest
and wild life resources and their conservation;
Energy crisis.
3. Agriculture : Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds,
fertilizers, power; Institutional factors; land holdings,
land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern,
agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop
combination, land capability; Agro and social-
forestry; Green revolution and its socio-economic
and ecological implications; Significance of dry
farming; Livestock resources and white revolution;
Aqua-culture; Sericulture, Agriculture and poultry;
Agricultural regionalisation; Agro-climatic zones;
Agro-ecological regions.
4. Industry : Evolution of industries; Locational factors
of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium,
fertiliser, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical,
automobile, cottage and ago-based industries;
Industrial houses and complexes including public
sector underkings; Industrial regionalisation; New
industrial policy; Multinationals and liberalisation;
Special Economic Zones; Tourism including
ecotourism.
5. Transport, Communication and Trade : Road, railway,
waterway, airway and pipeline net works and their
complementary roles in regional development;
Growing importance of ports on national and foreign
trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export
processing zones; Developments in communication
and information technology and their impacts on
economy and society; Indian space programme.
6. Cultural Setting : Historical Perspective of Indian
Society; Racial linguistic and ethnic diversities;
religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas and
their problems; Cultural regions; Growth, distribution
and density of population; Demographic attributes:
sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force,
dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-
regional, interaregional and international) and
associated problems; Population problems and
policies; Health indicators.
7. Settlements : Types, patterns and morphology of
rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology
of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian
cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; Urban
sprawl; Slums and asssociated problems; Town
planning; Problems of urbanisation and remedies.
8. Regional Development and Planning: Experience of
regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated
rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and
decentralised planning; Command area development;
Watershed management; Planning for backward
area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area
development; Multi-level planning; Regional
planning and development of island territories.
9. Political Aspects : Geographical basis of Indian
federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new
states; Regional consciousness and inter-state
issues; International boundary of India and related
issues; Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world
affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean
realm.
10. Contemporary Issues : Ecological issues:
Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes,
Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues
related to environmental pollution; Changes in
patterns of land use; Principles of environmental
impact assessment and environmental management;
Population explosion and food security;
Environmental degradation; Deforestation,
desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian
and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in
economic development; Concept of sustainable
growth and development; Environmental awareness;
Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.