GEOLOGY SYLLABUS FOR UPSC IAS CIVIL SERVICES MAINS EXAMINATION

                                GEOLOGY
                              PAPER-FIRST

1. General Geology :
The Solar System, meteorites, origin and interior of the
earth and age of earth; Volcanoes—causes and products,
Volcanic belts. Earthquakes—causes, effects, seismic of zone
of India; Island arcs, trenches and mid-ocean ridges;
Continental drift; Seafloor spreading, plate tectonics. Isostasy.
2. Geomorphology and Remote Sensing :
Basic concepts of geomorphology. Weathering and soil
formations; Landforms, slopes and drainage. Geomorphic
cycles and their interpretation. Morphology and its relation
to structures and lithology; Coastal geomorphology;
Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil
engineering; hydrology and environmental studies;
Geomorphology of Indian sub-continent.
Aerial photographs and their interpretation—merits and
limitations; The Electromagnetic spectrum. Orbiting
Satellites and Sensor Systems. Indian Remote Sensing
Satellites. Satellite data products; Applications of remote
sensing in geology; The Geographic Information System
(GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS)—its applications.
3. Structural Geology :
Principles of geologic mapping and map reading,
projection diagrams, Stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-
strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials;
Strain markers in deformed rocks. Behaviour of minerals and
rocks under deformation conditions. Folds and faults
classification and mechanics; Structural analysis of folds,
foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities; Time-
relationship between crystallization and deformation.
4. Paleontology :
Species—definition and nomenclature; Megafossils and
Microfossils. Modes of preservation of fossils; Different kinds
of microfossils; Application of microfossils in correlation,
petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic
studies; Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and
Proboscidae. Siwalik fauna.
Gondwana flora and fauna and its importance; Index
fossils and their significance.
5. Indian Stratigraphy :
Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostrati-
graphic, biostratigraphic, chrono-stratigraphic and
magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships; Distribution
and classification of Precambrian rocks of India; Study of
stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks
of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic
importance. Major boundary problems—Cambrian/
Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and
Pliocene/Pleistocene; Study of climatic conditions,
paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian sub-
continent in the geological past. Tectonic framework of India.
Evolution of the Himalayas.
6. Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology :
Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water;
Movement of subsurface water; Springs; Porosity,
permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and
storage coefficient, classification of aquifers; Water-bearing
characteristics of rocks; Groundwater chemistry. Salt water
intrusion. Types of wells. Drainage basin morphometry;
Exploration for groundwater; Groundwater recharge;
Problems and management of groundwater; Rainwater
harvesting; Engineering properties of rocks; Geological
investigations for dams, tunnels highways, railway and
bridges; Rock as construction material; Landslides causes,
prevention and rehabilitation; Earthquake-resistant structures.

                          PAPER-SECOND

1. Mineralogy :
Classification of crystals into systems and classes of
symmetry; International system of crystallographic notation;
Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry;
Elements of X-ray crystallography.
Physical and chemical characters of rock forming silicate
mineral groups; Structural classification of silicates; Common
minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks; Minerals of the
carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups; Clay minerals. Optical properties of common rock forming minerals;
Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence,
twinning and dispersion in minerals.
2. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology :
Generation and crystallisation of magmas. Crystallisation
of albite—anorthite, diopside—anorthite and diopside—
wollastonite—silica systems. Bowen's Reaction Principle;
Magmatic differentiation and assimilation. Petrogenetic
significance of the textures and structures of igneous rocks.
Petrography and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic
and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline
rocks. Carbonatites. Deccan volcanic province.
Types and agents of metamorphism. Metamorphic
grades and zones; Phase rule. Facies of regional and contact
metamorphism; ACF and AKF diagrams; Textures and
structures of metamorphic rocks. Metamorphism of
arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks; Minerals
assemblages. Retrograde metamorphism; Metasomatism and
granitisation, migmatites. Granulite terrains of India.
3. Sedimenary Petrology :
Sedimentas and Sedimentary rocks: Processes of
formation; digenesis and lithification; Clastic and non-clastic
rocks-their classification, petrography and depositional
environment; Sedimentary facies and provenance. Sedimentary
structures and their significance. Heavy minerals and their
significance. Sedimentary basins of India.
4. Economic Geology :
Ore, ore mineral and gangue, tenor of ore. Classification
of ore deposits; Processes of formation of mineral deposits;
Controls of ore localisation; Ore texures and structures;
Metallogenic epochs and provinces; Geology of the important
Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron,
lead, zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and
industrial minerals; Deposits of coal and petroleum in India,
National Mineral Policy; Conservation and utilization of mineral
resources. Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.
5. Mining Geology :
Methods of prospecting—geological, geophysical,
geochemical and geobotanical; Techniques of sampling.
Estimation of reserves of ore; Methods of exploration and
mining-metallic ores, industrial minerals, marine mineral
resources and building stones. Mineral beneficiation and ore
dressing.
6. Geochemistry and Environmental Geology :
Cosmic abundance of elements. Composition of the
planets and meteorites. Structure and composition of earth
and distribution of elements. Trace elements. Elements of
crystal chemistry-types of chemical bonds, coordination
number. Isomorphism and polymorphism. Elementary
thermodynamics.
Natural hazards—floods, mass wasting, costal hazards,
earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation;
Environmental impact of urbanization, mining, industrial and
radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine
waste and fly-ash. Pollution of ground and surface water,
marine pollution. Environment protection—legislative
measures in India; Sea level changes: causes and impact.