1. Sources
Archaeological sources :

Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics,
Literary sources:
Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific
literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious
Foreign account: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
2. Pre-history and Proto-history :
Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic
and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and
3. Indus Valley Civilization :
Origin, date, extent, characteristics-decline, survival and
significance, art and architecture.
4. Megalithic Cultures :
Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside
the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements,
Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
5. Aryans and Vedic Period :
Expansions of Aryans in India :
Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature;
Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period;
Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic
Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
6. Period of Mahajanapadas :
Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and
monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic
growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and
Buddism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.
Iranian and Mecedonian invasions and their impact.
7. Mauryan Empire :
Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta,
Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma;
Edicts; Polity, Administration, Economy; Art, architecture and
sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion;
Disintegration of the empire; sungas and Kanvas.
8. Post-Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas,
Western Kshatrapas) :
Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres,
economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social
conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science. 9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South
Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam
Age; Administration, Economy, land grants, coinage, trade
guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature
and culture; Art and architecture.
10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:
Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage
of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian
feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and
educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi,
Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.
11. Regional States during Gupta Era:
The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity
and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of
Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakit movement,
Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple
architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and
administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind;
Alberuni, The Chaluky as of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas,
Pandyas; Polity and Administration; Local Government;
Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of
temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature,
economy and society.
12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:
Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of
art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools,
ideas in Science and Mathematics.
13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:
— Polity: Major political developments in Northern India
and the peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs.
— The Cholas: administration, village economy and
society “Indian Feudalism”.
— Agrarian economy and urban settlements.
— Trade and commerce.
— Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social
— Condition of women.
— Indian science and technology.
14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:
— Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and
Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa.
— Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional
cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India,
— Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil
literature, literature in the newly developing languages,
Kalhan's Rajtarangini, Alberuni's India .
— Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture,
15. The Thirteenth Century:
— Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian
invasions - factors behind Ghurian success.
— Economic, Social and cultural consequences.
— Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans.
— Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.
16. The Fourteenth Century:
— “The Khalji Revolution”.
— Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion,
agrarian and economic measure.
— Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures,
bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq.
— Firuz Tugluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil
engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate,
foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta's account.
17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and
Fourteenth Centuries:
— Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes,
town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and
slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi
— Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional
languages of North India, literaute in the languages of
South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural
forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture.
— Economy: Agricultural Production, rise of urban
economy and non-agricultural production, trade and
18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century-Political
Developments and Economy:
— Rise of Provincial Dynasties : Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul
Abedin), Gujarat.
— Malwa, Bahmanids.
— The Vijayanagara Empire.
— Lodis.
— Mughal Empire, first phase : Babur, Humayun.
— The Sur Empire : Sher Shah’s administration.
— Portuguese colonial enterprise, Bhakti and Sufi
19. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century- Society and
— Regional cultures specificities.
— Literary traditions.
— Provincial architectural.
— Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara
Empire. 20. Akbar:
— Conquests and consolidation of empire.
— Establishment of jagir and mansab systems.
— Rajput policy.
— Evolution of religious and social outlook. Theory of
Sulh-i-kul and religious policy.
— Court patronage of art and technology.
21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
— Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and
— The Empire and the Zamindars.
— Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and
— Nature of the Mughal State.
— Late Seventeenth Century crisis and the revolts.
— The Ahom kingdom.
— Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.
22. Economy and society, in the 16th and 17th Centuries:
— Population Agricultural and craft production.
— Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English
and French companies : a trade revolution.
— Indian mercantile classes. Banking, insurance and credit
— Conditions of peasants, Condition of Women.
— Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth
23. Culture during Mughal Empire:
— Persian histories and other literature
— Hindi and religious literatures.
— Mughal architecture.
— Mughal painting.
— Provincial architecture and painting.
— Classical music.
— Science and technology.
24. The Eighteenth Century:
— Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire.
— The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal,
— Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas.
— The Maratha fiscal and financial system.
— Emergence of Afghan power Battle of Panipat, 1761.
— State of, political, cultural and economic, on eve of the
British conquest.


1. European Penetration into India:
The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and
the Dutch; The English and the French East India
Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic
Wars; Bengal-The conflict between the English and the
Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of
Plassey; Significance of Plassey.
2. British Expansion in India:
Bengal-Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar;
Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars;
The Punjab.
3. Early Structure of the British Raj:
The Early administrative structure; From diarchy to
direct contol; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt's India
Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The Voice of free
trade and the changing character of British colonial rule;
The English utilitarian and India.
4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:
(a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent
Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement;
Economic impact of the revenue arrangements;
Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless
agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-
industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of
wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and
communication network including telegraph and postal
services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior;
European business enterprise and its limitations.
5. Social and Cultural Developments:
The state of indigenous education, its dislocation;
Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of
western education in India; The rise of press, literature
and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular
literature; Progress of Science; Christian missionary
activities in India.
6. Social and Religious Reform Movements in Bengal and
Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement;
Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The
Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The
social reform movements in India including Sati, widow
remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of
Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India;
Islamic revivalism-the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements. 7. Indian Response to British Rule:
Peasant movement and tribal uprisings in the 18th and
19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the
Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar
(1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion
(1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda
Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 —Origin,
character, casuses of failure, the consequences; The
shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-
1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and
8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism;
Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian
National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to
the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of
Early Congress; the social composition of early
Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists;
The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement
in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of
Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary
extremism in India.
9. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism;
Gandhi's popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the
Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement;
National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation
movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience
Movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience
Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the
Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant
Movements; Nationalism and Working class
movements; Women and Indian youth and students in
Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the
formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India
Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.
10. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India
between 1858 and 1935.
11. Other strands in the National Movement.
The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra,
U.P. the Madras Presidency, Outside India.
The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal
Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist
Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.
12. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu
Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition;
Transfer of power; Independence.
13. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru's Foreign Policy; India
and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic
reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and
regional inequality; Integration of Princely States;
Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National
14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward Castes and
Tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit
15. Economic development and political change; Land
reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction;
Ecology and environmental policy in post-colonial
India; Progress of Science.
16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
(i) Major Ideas of Enlightenment : Kant, Rousseau.
(ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies.
(iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian
17. Origins of Modern Politics :
(i) European States System
(ii) American Revolution and the Constitution
(iii) French Revolution and Aftermath, 1789-1815
(iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln
and the abolition of slavery.
(v) British Democratic politics, 1815-1850 : Parliamentary
Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.
18. Industrialization :
(i) English Industrial Revolution : Causes and Impact on
(ii) Industrialization in other countries : USA, Germany,
Russia, Japan.
(iii) Industrialization and Globalization.
19. Nation-State System :
(i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century.
(ii) Nationalism : State-building in Germany and Italy.
(iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence
of nationalities across the World.
20. Imperialism and Colonialism :
(i) South and South-East Asia.
(ii) Latin America and South Africa.
(iii) Australia.
(iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.
21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution :
(i) 19th Century European revolutions.
(ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921.
(iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.
(iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949.
22. World Wars :
(i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars : Societal
(ii) World War I : Causes and Consequences.
(iii) World War II : Causes and Consequences. 23. The World after World War II:
(i) Emergence of Two power blocs.
(ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment
(iii) UNO and the global disputes.
24. Liberation from Colonial Rule :
(i) Latin America-Bolivar.
(ii) Arab World-Egypt.
(iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy.
(iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam.
25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment :
(i) Factors constraining Development ; Latin America,
26. Unification of Europe :
(i) Post War Foundations ; NATO and European
(ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community
(iii) European Union.
27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar
World :
(i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet Communism
and Soviet Union, 1985-1991.
(ii) Political Changes in East Europe 1989-2001.
(iii) End of the Cold War and US Ascendancy in the World
as the lone superpower.