The economy of India is a developing mixed economy. The economy of India is the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and the third-largest economy by purchasing power parity (PPP). The country
ranks 139th in per capita GDP (nominal) with $2,134 and 122th in per capita GDP
purchasing power parity (PPP) with $7,783 as of 2018. After the 1991 economic liberalisation, India achieved 6 to 7% average GDP growth annually. Since 2014 with the exception of 2017, India's economy has been the world's fastest growing economy, surpassing the China. India has one of the fastest growing service sectors in the world with an annual growth rate above 9% since 2001, India has classified and tracked its economy and GDP in three sectors: agriculture, industry and services. Agriculture includes crops, horticulture, milk and animal husbandry, aquaculture, fishing, sericulture, aviculture, forestry and related activities. Industry includes various manufacturing sub-sectors. India's definition of services sector includes its construction, retail, software, IT, communications, hospitality, infrastructure operations, education, healthcare, banking and insurance, and many other economic activities. service sector which contributed to 57% of GDP in 2012–13. India has become a major exporter of IT services, Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) services, and software services with $154 billion revenue in FY 2017. The agricultural sector is the largest employer in India's economy but contributes to 17%  share of  GDP in 2013–14. The  manufacturing industry sector contributes 26% share of GDP in 2013–14. India had $600 billion worth of retail market in 2015 and one of world's fastest growing e-commerce markets. 


The Constitution of India is the highest top most law of India. The Constitution of India framework define fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, duties of government institutions and
fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. The Constitution of India is the world's longest written constitution. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was the chairman of the drafting committe. it was created by a constituent assembly rather than Parliament. Parliament cannot override the constitution. It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 and became effective on 26 January 1950. the Dominion of India became the sovereign democratic  republic of India. India celebrates its constitution effective day on 26 January as Republic Day. The constitution declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular country and assuring its citizens justice, equality and liberty, and efforts to promote fraternity. its framers borrowed features of previous legislation such as the Government of India Act 1858, the Indian Councils Acts of 1861, 1892 and 1909, the Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935, and the Indian Independence Act 1947. The constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, which was elected by elected 389 members of the provincial assemblies. The first, two-day president of the assembly was Sachchidananda Sinha then after two days  Rajendra Prasad was elected president. Benegal Narsing Rau, a civil servant who became the first Indian judge in the International Court of Justice and was president of the United Nations Security Council, was appointed as the assembly's constitutional adviser in 1946. Rau prepared its initial draft. At 14 August 1947 meeting of the assembly proposed a drafting  committees and on 29 August 1947 drafting  committee appointed  with eight members dr. B. R. Ambedkar as chairperson. Rau's draft was considered, debated and amended by the drafting  committee and  revised draft constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the assembly on 4 November 1947. While debate on the revised draft constitution, the assembly
changed 2,473 amendments out of total 7,635 amendments. Before adopting the constitution, the assembly arranged eleven sessions in 165 days for the review of the constitution. On 26 November 1949 it adopted the constitution, which was signed by 284 members. 26 November is celebrated as National Law Day, or Constitution Day. The assembly's final session convened on 24 January 1950. Each member signed two copies of the constitution, one in Hindi and the other in English. The original constitution is hand-written, with each page decorated by artists from Shantiniketan including Beohar Rammanohar Sinha and Nandalal Bose. Its calligrapher was Prem Behari Narain Raizada. The constitution was published in Dehradun and photolithographed by the Survey of India. Production of the original constitution took nearly five years. Two days later, on 26 January 1950, it became the law of India. The estimated cost of the Constituent Assembly was ₹6.3 crore. The original 1950 constitution is preserved in a helium-filled case at the Parliament House in New Delhi.
The following Articles is taken from other countries constitutions
from United Kingdom -
Parliamentary government
Concept of single citizenship
Rule of law
The legislative speaker and their role
Legislative procedure

From United States -
Bill of Rights
Federal structure of government
Electoral College
Independent judiciary and separation of powers
Judicial review
President as commander-in-chief of the armed forces
Equal protection under law

From Ireland
Directive principles of state policy

From Australia
Freedom of trade between states
National legislative power to implement treaties, even on matters outside normal federal jurisdiction
Concurrent List
Preamble terminology

From France
Ideals of liberte, egalite, fraternite

From Canada
Quasi-federal government — a federal system with a strong central government
Distribution of powers between the central and state governments
Residual powers, retained by the central government

From Soviet Union
Fundamental Duties under article 51-A
Mandated planning commission to oversee economic development

From Other constitutions
The emergency provision under article 356 (from the Weimar Constitution)
Amending the constitution (from South Africa)
Due process (from Japan)
The Indian constitution is the world's longest for a sovereign nation. At the start it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. now it has a preamble and 448 articles, which are grouped into 25 parts. With 12 schedules  and five appendices, it has been amended  till now 101 times latest amendment became effective on 1 July 2017.
The constitution's articles are grouped into the following parts:
Preamble, with the words "socialist" and "secular", and 'integrity' added in 1976 by the 42nd amendment
Part I – States and union territories
Part II – Citizenship
Part III – Fundamental Rights
Part IV – Directive Principles of State Policy
Part IVA – Fundamental Duties
Part V – The union
Part VI – The states
Part VII – States in the B part of the first schedule (repealed)
Part VIII – Union territories
Part IX – Panchayats
Part IXA – Municipalities
Part IXB – Co-operative societies
Part X – Scheduled and tribal areas
Part XI – Relations between the union and the states
Part XII – Finance, property, contracts and suits
Part XIII – Trade and commerce within India
Part XIV – Services under the union and states
Part XIVA – Tribunals
Part XV – Elections
Part XVI – Special provisions relating to certain classes
Part XVII – Languages
Part XVIII – Emergency provisions
Part XIX – Miscellaneous
Part XX – Amending the constitution
Part XXI – Temporary, transitional and special provisions
Part XXII – Short title, date of commencement, authoritative text in Hindi and repeals

Schedules are lists in the constitution which categorise and tabulate bureaucratic activity and government policy.
First Schedule (Articles 1 and 4) – Lists India's states and territories, changes in their borders and the laws used to make that change.
Second Schedule (Articles 59(3), 65(3), 75(6), 97, 125, 148(3), 158(3), 164(5), 186 and 221) – Lists the salaries of public officials, judges, and the Comptroller and Auditor General.
Third Schedule (Articles 75(4), 99, 124(6), 148(2), 164(3), 188 and 219) – Forms of oaths – Lists the oaths of office for elected officials and judges.
Fourth Schedule (Articles 4(1) and 80(2)) – Details the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha (upper house of Parliament) by state or union territory.
Fifth Schedule (Article 244(1)) – Provides for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes (areas and tribes requiring special protection).
Sixth Schedule (Articles 244(2) and 275(1)) – Provisions made for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram.
Seventh Schedule (Article 246) — Central government, state, and concurrent lists of responsibilities
Eighth Schedule (Articles 344(1) and 351) – Official languages
Ninth Schedule (Article 31-B) – Validation of certain acts and regulations
Tenth Schedule (Articles 102(2) and 191(2)) – Anti-defection provisions for members of Parliament and state legislatures.
Eleventh Schedule (Article 243-G) —Panchayat Raj (rural local government)
Twelfth Schedule (Article 243-W) — Municipalities (urban local government)
Appendix I – The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954
Appendix II – Re-statement, referring to the constitution's present text, of exceptions and modifications applicable to the state of Jammu and Kashmir
Appendix III – Extracts from the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978
Appendix IV – The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002
Appendix V – The Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2003

The executive, legislative and judicial branches of government receive their power from the constitution and are bound by it. India is governed by a parliamentary system of government with the executive directly accountable to the legislature. The President of India is head of the executive, under Articles 52 and 53, with the duty of preserving, protecting and defending the constitution and the law under Article 60. Article 74 provides for a Prime Minister as head of the Council of Ministers, which aids and advises the president in the performance of their constitutional duties. The council is answerable to the lower house under Article 75(3).
The constitution is considered federal in nature, and unitary in spirit. It has features of a federation (a codified, supreme constitution, a three-tier governmental structure [central, state and local], division of powers, bicameralism and an independent judiciary) and unitary features such as a single constitution, single citizenship, an integrated judiciary, a flexible constitution, a strong central government, appointment of state governors by the central government, All India Services (the IAS, IFS and IPS) and emergency provisions. This unique combination makes it quasi-federal in form. Each state and union territory has its own government. Analogous to the president and prime minister, each has a governor or (in union territories) a lieutenant governor and a chief minister. Article 356 permits the president to dismiss a state government and assume direct authority if a situation arises in which state government cannot be conducted in accordance with constitution. This power, known as president's rule, The 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts introduced the system of panchayati raj in rural areas and Nagar Palikas in urban areas. Article 370 gives special status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. 
Amendments are additions, variations or repeal of any part of the constitution by Parliament. The procedure is detailed in Article 368. An amendment bill must be passed by each house of Parliament by a two-thirds majority of its members. Certain amendments pertaining to the constitution's federal nature must also be ratified by a majority of state legislatures. Unlike ordinary bills in accordance with Article 245 (except for money bills), there is no provision for a joint session of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha to pass a constitutional amendment. 
By July 2018, 124 amendment bills had been presented in Parliament; out of these, 101 became Amendment Acts. 
The judiciary is the final arbiter of the constitution. Its duty is to act as a watchdog, preventing any legislative or executive act from overstepping constitutional bounds. The judiciary protects the fundamental rights of the people, and balances the conflicting exercise of power between the central government and a state.


The culture of India refers collectively to the thousands of distinct and unique cultures of all religions and communities present in India. India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food,
and customs differ from place to place within the country. Indian culture, often labeled as an amalgamation of several cultures, spans across the Indian subcontinent and has been influenced by Many elements of India's diverse cultures, such as Indian religions, philosophy, cuisine, languages, arts, dance and music. Indian-origin religions Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism, all of which are based on the concept of dharma and karma. Ahimsa, a philosophy of nonviolence, is an important aspect of native Indian faiths. India is the birthplace of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, and other religions. They are collectively known as Indian religions. Today, Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third and fourth-largest religions respectively, with over 2 billion followers altogether, According to the 2011 census, 79.8% of the population of India practice Hinduism. Islam (14.2%), Christianity (2.3%), Sikhism (1.7%), Buddhism (0.7%) and Jainism (0.4%). Indian philosophy comprises six schools of orthodox they are Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mimamsa and Vedanta—and four heterodox schools—Jain, Buddhist, ajivika and Carvaka last two are also schools of Hinduism. India has a prevailing tradition of the joint family system. where all family member live together. Usually, the oldest male member is the head in the joint family system. He mostly makes all important decisions. Arranged marriages  norm in Indian society. Even today, the most of Indians have their marriages planned by their parents and other respected family-members. Weddings are festive occasions in India with extensive decorations, colors, music, dance, costumes and rituals that depend on the religion of the bride and the groom, there are a few key rituals common in Hindu weddings – Kanyadaan, Panigrahana, and Saptapadi; these are respectively, gifting away of daughter by the father, voluntarily holding hand near the fire to signify impending union, and taking seven steps before fire with each step including a set of mutual vows. After the seventh step and vows of Saptapadi, the couple is legally husband and wife. Sikhs get married through a ceremony called Anand Karaj. The couple walk around the holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib four times. Indian Muslims wedding  rituals include Nikah, payment of financial dower called Mahr by the groom to the bride, signing of marriage contract, and a reception. Indian Christian weddings follow customs similar to those practiced in the Christian countries. India, being a multi-cultural, multi-ethnic and multi-religious society, celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. The three main national holidays in India is the Independence Day, the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti, which are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India. In addition, many Indian states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. Popular hindu religious festivals are Navratri, Janmashtami, Diwali, Maha Shivratri, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga Puja, Holi, Rath Yatra, Ugadi, Onam, Vasant Panchami, Rakshabandhan, and Dussehra. Several harvest festivals such as Makar Sankranti, Sohrai, Pusna, Hornbill, Chapchar Kut, Pongal and Raja sankaranti swinging festival are also fairly popular. Indian New Year festival are celebrated in different part of India with unique style in different times. Ugadi, Bihu, Gudhi Padwa, Puthandu, Vaisakhi, Pohela Boishakh, Vishu and Vishuva Sankranti are the New Year festival of different part of India. Sikh festivals, such as Guru Nanak Jayanti, Baisakhi are celebrated with full fanfare by Sikhs and Hindus of Punjab and Delhi. Islam in India is the second largest religion with over 172 million Muslims, according to India's 2011 census. The Islamic festivals declared public holiday in India are; Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Adha (Bakri Eid), Milad-un-Nabi, Muharram and Shab-e-Barat.  Some of the Indian states have declared regional holidays for the particular regional popular festivals; such as Arba'een, Jumu'ah-tul-Wida and Shab-e-Qadar. Christianity is India's third largest religion. With over 23 million Christians, The country celebrates Christmas and Good Friday as public holidays. Regional and community fairs are also common festival in India. Pushkar fair of Rajasthan is one of the world's largest markets of cattle and livestock. Greetings include Namaste (Hindi and Sanskrit), Namaskar (Hindi), Juhar/Namaskar in Odia, Namaskar (Marathi), Namaskara (Kannada), Namaskaram (Telugu, Malayalam), Vanakkam (Tamil), Nomoshkaar (Bengali), Nomoskar (Assamese), Aadab (Urdu), and Sat Shri Akal (Punjabi). All these are common spoken greetings or salutations when people meet, and are forms of farewell when they depart.  Other greetings include Jai Jagannath (used in Odia) Ami Aschi (used in Bengali), Jai Shri Krishna (in Gujarati and the Braj Bhasha and Rajasthani dialects of Hindi), Ram Ram/(Jai) Sita Ram ji (Awadhi and Bhojpuri dialects of Hindi and other Bihari dialects), and Sat Sri Akal (Punjabi; used by followers of Sikhism), As-salamu alaykum (Urdu; used by follower of Islam), Jai Jinendra (a common greeting used by followers of Jainism), Jai Bhim (used by followers of Ambedkarism), Namo Buddha (used by followers of Buddhism), Allah Abho (used by followers of Bahá'í), Shalom aleichem (used by followers of Judaism), Hamazor Hama Ashobed (used by followers of Zoroastrianism), Sahebji (Persian and Gujarati; used by the Parsi people), Dorood (Persian and Guarati; used by the Irani people), Om Namah Shivaya/Jai Bholenath (used in Dogri and Kashmiri, also used in the city of Varanasi), Jai Ambe Maa/Jai Mata di (used in Eastern India), Jai Ganapati Bapa (used in Marathi and Konkani). These traditional forms of greeting may be absent in the world of business and in India's urban environment, where a handshake is a common form of greeting.
In Hinduism, the cow is regarded as a symbol of ahimsa (non-violence), mother goddess and bringer of good fortune and wealth.[86] For this reason, cows are revered in Hindu culture and feeding a cow is seen as an act of worship. This is why beef remains a taboo food in mainstream Hindu and Jain society.
Indian food is as diverse as India. Indian cuisine is diverse, ranging from very spicy to very mild, varying with seasons in each region. These reflect the local agriculture, regional climate, culinary innovations and cultural diversity. Food in India is sometimes served in thali – a plate with rice, bread. Indian cuisines use numerous ingredients, deploy a wide range of food preparation styles, cooking techniques and culinary presentation. From salads to sauces, from vegetarian to meat, from spices to sensuous, from breads to desserts, Indian cuisine is invariably complex.
Traditional clothing in India greatly varies across different parts of the country and is influenced by local culture, geography, climate and rural-urban settings. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as sari and mekhela sador for women and dhoti or lungi or panche (in Kannada) for men. Stitched clothes are also popular such as churidar or salwar-kameez for women, with dupatta (long scarf) thrown over shoulder completing the outfit. Salwar is often loose fitting, while churidar is a tighter cut. The dastar, a headgear worn by Sikhs is common in Punjab.
The language with the largest number of speakers in India is Hindi and it's various dialects. Early forms of present-day Hindustani developed from the Middle Indo-Aryan apabhraṃśa vernaculars of present-day North India in the 7th–13th centuries. During the time of Islamic rule in parts of India, it became influenced by Persian. The Persian influence led to the development of Urdu, which is more Persianized and written in the Perso-Arabic script. Modern standard Hindi has a lesser Persian influence and is written in the Devanagari script.
The Indian art of dance is the expression of inner beauty and the divine in man. each gesture seeks to communicate the ideas, each facial expression the emotions. Indian dance includes eight classical dance forms, many in narrative forms with mythological elements. The eight classical forms accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, yakshagana of Karnataka, manipuri of Manipur, odissi (orissi) of the state of Odisha and the sattriya of Assam.
Most early and medieval art in India is Cave paintings from Ajanta and Ellora.medieval India art Pattachitra, Madhubani painting, Mysore painting, Rajput painting, Tanjore painting and Mughal painting are some notable Genres of Indian Art; During the period of the Mauryan and Gupta empires and their successors, several Buddhist architectural complexes, such as the caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa were built. Later on, South India produced several Hindu temples like Chennakesava Temple at Belur, the Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura, Brihadeeswara Temple, Thanjavur built by Raja Raja Chola, the Sun Temple, Konark, Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam, and the Buddha stupa (Chinna Lanja dibba and Vikramarka kota dibba) at Bhattiprolu. Rajput kingdoms oversaw the construction of Khajuraho Temple Complex, Chittor Fort and Chaturbhuj Temple, etc. during their reign. Angkor Wat, Borobudur and other Buddhist and Hindu temples indicate strong Indian influence on South East Asian architecture, as they are built in styles almost identical to traditional Indian religious buildings. the Indo-Islamic style of architecture. The Qutb complex, a group of monuments constructed by successive sultanas of the Delhi Sultanate is one of the earliest examples. Fatehpur Sikri Taj Mahal, Gol Gumbaz, Red Fort of Delhi, and Charminar are creations of this era, and are often used as the stereotypical symbols of India. Contemporary Indian architecture is more cosmopolitan. Cities are extremely compact and densely populated. Mumbai's Nariman Point is famous for its Art Deco buildings. Recent creations such as the Lotus Temple,  Golden Pagoda and Akshardham, and the various modern urban developments of India like Bhubaneswar and Chandigarh, are notable.
Field hockey was considered to be the national game of India, Cricket is also considered the most popular sport in India. Football is popular in the Indian state of West Bengal. The city of Kolkata is the home to the largest stadium in India, and the second largest stadium in the world by capacity, Salt Lake Stadium. Chess is commonly believed to have originated in northwestern India during the Gupta empire, where its early form in the 6th century was known as chaturanga. Other games which originated in India and continue to remain popular in wide parts of northern India include Kabaddi, Gilli-danda, and Kho kho. Traditional southern Indian games include Snake boat race and Kuttiyum kolum. The modern game of polo is derived from Manipur, India, where the game was known as 'Sagol Kangjei'. The first polo club was established in the town of Silchar in Assam, India, in 1833. In 2011, India inaugurated a privately built Buddh International Circuit, its first motor racing circuit. The 5.14-kilometre circuit is in Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, near Delhi. The first Formula One Indian Grand Prix event was hosted here in October 2011.



FUNDAMENTALS  OF  SOCIOLOGY1.  Sociology - The Discipline:(a)Modernity and social changes in Europe andemergence of
Sociology.(b)Scope of the subject and comparison with other socialsciences.(c)Sociology and common sense.2.  Sociology as  Science:(a)Science, scientific method and critique.(b)Major theoretical strands of research methodology.(c)Positivism and its critique.(d)Fact value and objectivity.( e)Non-positivist methodologies.3. Research Methods and Analysis:(a)Qualitative and quantitative methods.(b)Techniques of data collection.(c )Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.4. Sociological Thinkers:(a)Karl Marx - Historical materialism, mode of production,alienation, class struggle.(b)Emile Durkhteim - Division of labour, social fact,suicide, religion and society.(c)Max Weber - Social action, ideal types, authority,bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit ofcapitalism.(d)Talcolt Parsons - Social system, pattern variables.(e)Robert K. Merton - Latent and manifest functions,conformity and deviance, reference groups.(f)Mead - Self and identity.5.  Stratification and Mobility :(a)Concepts - equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion,poverty and deprivation.(b)Theories of social stratification - Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.(c)  Dimensions - Social stratification of class, statusgroups, gender, ethnicity and race.(d)Social mobility - open and closed systems, types ofmobility, sources and causes of mobility.6. Works and Economic Life :(a)Social organization of work in different types ofsociety - slave society, feudal society, industrialcapitalist society.

(b)Formal and informal organization of work.(c)Labour and society.7.  Politics and Society:(a)Sociological theories of power.(b)Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups andpolitical parties.(c)Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society,ideology.(d)Protest, agitation, social movements, collectiveaction, revolution.8. Religion and Society :(a)Sociological theories of religion.(b)Types of religious practices: animism, monism,pluralism, sects, cults.(c) Religion in modern society: religion and science,secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.9.  Systems of Kinship:(a)Family, household, marriage.(b)Types and forms of family.(c)Lineage and descent.(d)Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.(e)Contemporary trends.10. Social Change in Modern Society :(a)Sociological theories of social change.(b)Development and dependency.(c)Agents of social change.(d)Education and social change.(e)Science, technology and social change.


STRUCTURE  AND  CHANGEA. Introducing Indian Society :(i)Perspectives on the Study of Indian Society :(a)Indology (G.S. Ghure).(b)Structural functionalism (M. N. Srinivas).(c)Marxist sociology (A. R. Desai).(ii)Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :(a)Social background of Indian nationalism.(b)Modernization of Indian tradition.(c)Protests and movements during the colonialperiod.(d)Social reforms.B. Social Structure:(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:(a)The idea of Indian village and village studies.(b)Agrarian social structure—evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.(ii)Caste System:(a)Perspectives on the study of caste systems: G. S.Ghurye, M. N. Srinivas, Louis Dumont, AndreBeteille.(b)Features of caste system.(c)Untouchability-forms and perspectives(iii) Tribal Communities in India:(a)Definitional problems.(b)Geographical spread.(c)Colonial policies and tribes.(d)Issues of integration and autonomy.(iv)Social Classes in India:(a)Agrarian class structure.(b)Industrial class structure. (c)Middle classes in India.(v)Systems of Kinship in India:(a)Lineage and descent in India.(b)Types of kinship systems.(c)Family and marriage in India.(d)Household dimensions of the family.(e)Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division oflabour.(vi)Religion and Society :(a)Religious communities in India.(b)Problems of religious minorities.C.  Social Changes in India:(i)  Visions of Social Change in India:(a)Idea of development planning and mixed economy.(b)Constitution, law and social change.(c)Education and social change.(ii)Rural and Agrarian Transformation in India:(a)Programmes of rural development, CommunityDevelopment Programme, cooperatives, povertyalleviation schemes.(b)Green revolution and social change.(c)Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture.(d)Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.(iii)Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:(a)Evolution of modern industry in India.(b)Growth of urban settlements in India.(c)Working class: structure, growth, class  mobilization.(d)Informal sector, child labour.(e)Slums and deprivation in urban areas.  (iv)Politics and Society :(a)Nation, democracy and citizenship.(b)Political parties, pressure groups, social and politicalelite.(c)Regionalism and decentralization of power.(d)Secularization.(v)Social Movements in Modern India :(a)Peasants and farmers movements.(b)Women’s movement.(c)Backward classes & Dalit movements.(d)Environmental movements.(e)Ethnicity and Identity movements.(vi)Population Dynamics :(a)Population size, growth, composition anddistribution.(b)Components of population growth: birth, death,migration.(c)Population Policy and family planning.(d)Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infantmortality, reproductive health.(vii)  Challenges of Social Transformation :(a)Crisis of development : displacement, environmentalproblems and sustainability.(b)Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.(c)Violence against women.(d)Caste conflicts.(e)Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.(f)Illiteracy and disparities in education.



Constitutional and administrative Law :
1. Constitution and Constitutionalism:The
distinctive features of the Constitution.
2. Fundamental Rights—Public interest litigation;
Legal Aid; Legal services authority.
3. Relationship between Fundamental rights,
Directive principles and Fundamental duties.
4. Constitutional Position of the President and
relation with the Council of Ministers.
5. Governor and his powers.
6. Supreme Court and the High Courts:
(a) Appointments and transfer.
(b) Powers, functions and jurisdiction.
7. Centre, States and local bodies:
(a) Distribution of legislative powers between the
Union and the States.
(b) Local Bodies.
(c) Administrative relationship among Union,
State and Local Bodies.
(d) Eminent domain-State property-common
property-community property.
8. Legislative powers, privileges and immunities.
9. Services under the Union and the States:
(a) Recruitment and conditions of services;
Constitutional safeguards; Administrative
(b) Union Public Service Commission and State
Public Service Commissions—Power and
(c) Election Commission—Power and functions.
10. Emergency provisions.
11. Amendment of the Constitution.
12. Principle of Natural Justice—Emerging trends and
judicial approach.
13. Delegated legislation and its constitutionality.
14. Separation of powers and constitutional
15. Judicial review of administrative action.
16. Ombudsman: Lokayukta, Lokpal etc.
International Law :
1. Nature and Definition of International Law.
2. Relationship between International Law and
Municipal Law.
3. State Recognition and State Succession.
4. Law of the sea: Inland Waters, Territorial Sea,
Contiguous Zone, Continental Shelf, Exclusive
Economic Zone and High Seas.
5. Individuals: Nationality, statelessness; Human
Rights and procedures available for their
6. Territorial jurisdiction of States, Extradition and
7. Treaties : Formation, application, termination and
8. United Nations : Its principal organs, powers
and functions and reform.
9. Peaceful settlement of disputes—different modes.
10. Lawful recourse to force : aggressions, self-
defence, intervention.
11. Fundamental principles of international
humanitarian law—International conventions and
contemporary developments.
12. Legality of the use of nuclear weapons; ban on
testing of nuclear weapons; Nuclear non-
proliferation treaty, CTST.
13. International Terrorism, State sponsored terrorism,
Hijacking, International Criminal Court.
14. New International Economic Order and Monetary
Law : WTO, TRIPS, GATT, IMF, World Bank.
15. Protection and Improvement of the Human
Environment : International Efforts.


Law of Crimes :—
1. General principles of Criminal liability : mens rea
and actus reus, mens rea in statutory offences.
2. Kinds of punishment and emerging trends as to
abolition of capital punishment.
3. Preparations and criminal attempt.
4. General exceptions.
5. Joint and constructive liability.
6. Abetment.
7. Criminal conspiracy.
8. Offences against the State.
9. Offences against public tranquility.
10. Offences against human body.
11. Offences against property.
12. Offences against women.
13. Defamation.
14. Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.
15. Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 and
subsequent legislative developments.
16. Plea bargaining.
Law of Torts
1. Nature and definition.
2. Liability based upon fault and strict liability;
Absolute liability.
3. Vicarious liability including State Liability.
4. General defences.
5. Joint tort fessors.
6. Remedies.
7. Negligence.
8. Defamation.
9. Nuisance.
10. Conspiracy.
11. False imprisonment.
12. Malicious prosecution.
13. Consumer Protection Act, 1986.
Law of Contracts and Mercantile Law
1. Nature and formation of contract/E-contract.
2. Factors vitiating free consent.
3. Void, voidable, illegal and unenforceable
4. Performance and discharge of contracts.
5. Quasi-contracts.
6. Consequences of breach of contract.
7. Contract of indemnity, guarantee and insurance.
8. Contract of agency.
9. Sale of goods and hire purchase.
10. Formation and dissolution of partnership.
11. Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881.
12. Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996.
13. Standard form contracts.
Contemporary Legal Developments
1. Public Interest Litigation.
2. Intellectual property rights—Concept, types/
3. Information Technology Law including Cyber
Laws—Concept, purpose/prospects.
4. Competition Law—Concept, purpose/prospects.
5. Alternate Dispute Resolution—Concept, types/
6. Major statutes concerning environmental law.
7. Right to Information Act.
8. Trial by media.



1. Sources
Archaeological sources :

Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics,
Literary sources:
Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific
literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious
Foreign account: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
2. Pre-history and Proto-history :
Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic
and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and
3. Indus Valley Civilization :
Origin, date, extent, characteristics-decline, survival and
significance, art and architecture.
4. Megalithic Cultures :
Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside
the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements,
Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
5. Aryans and Vedic Period :
Expansions of Aryans in India :
Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature;
Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period;
Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic
Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
6. Period of Mahajanapadas :
Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and
monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic
growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and
Buddism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.
Iranian and Mecedonian invasions and their impact.
7. Mauryan Empire :
Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta,
Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma;
Edicts; Polity, Administration, Economy; Art, architecture and
sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion;
Disintegration of the empire; sungas and Kanvas.
8. Post-Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas,
Western Kshatrapas) :
Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres,
economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social
conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science. 9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South
Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam
Age; Administration, Economy, land grants, coinage, trade
guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature
and culture; Art and architecture.
10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:
Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage
of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian
feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and
educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi,
Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.
11. Regional States during Gupta Era:
The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity
and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of
Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakit movement,
Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple
architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and
administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind;
Alberuni, The Chaluky as of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas,
Pandyas; Polity and Administration; Local Government;
Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of
temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature,
economy and society.
12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:
Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of
art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools,
ideas in Science and Mathematics.
13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:
— Polity: Major political developments in Northern India
and the peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs.
— The Cholas: administration, village economy and
society “Indian Feudalism”.
— Agrarian economy and urban settlements.
— Trade and commerce.
— Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social
— Condition of women.
— Indian science and technology.
14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:
— Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and
Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa.
— Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional
cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India,
— Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil
literature, literature in the newly developing languages,
Kalhan's Rajtarangini, Alberuni's India .
— Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture,
15. The Thirteenth Century:
— Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian
invasions - factors behind Ghurian success.
— Economic, Social and cultural consequences.
— Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans.
— Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.
16. The Fourteenth Century:
— “The Khalji Revolution”.
— Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion,
agrarian and economic measure.
— Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures,
bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq.
— Firuz Tugluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil
engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate,
foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta's account.
17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and
Fourteenth Centuries:
— Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes,
town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and
slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi
— Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional
languages of North India, literaute in the languages of
South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural
forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture.
— Economy: Agricultural Production, rise of urban
economy and non-agricultural production, trade and
18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century-Political
Developments and Economy:
— Rise of Provincial Dynasties : Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul
Abedin), Gujarat.
— Malwa, Bahmanids.
— The Vijayanagara Empire.
— Lodis.
— Mughal Empire, first phase : Babur, Humayun.
— The Sur Empire : Sher Shah’s administration.
— Portuguese colonial enterprise, Bhakti and Sufi
19. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century- Society and
— Regional cultures specificities.
— Literary traditions.
— Provincial architectural.
— Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara
Empire. 20. Akbar:
— Conquests and consolidation of empire.
— Establishment of jagir and mansab systems.
— Rajput policy.
— Evolution of religious and social outlook. Theory of
Sulh-i-kul and religious policy.
— Court patronage of art and technology.
21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
— Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and
— The Empire and the Zamindars.
— Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and
— Nature of the Mughal State.
— Late Seventeenth Century crisis and the revolts.
— The Ahom kingdom.
— Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.
22. Economy and society, in the 16th and 17th Centuries:
— Population Agricultural and craft production.
— Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English
and French companies : a trade revolution.
— Indian mercantile classes. Banking, insurance and credit
— Conditions of peasants, Condition of Women.
— Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth
23. Culture during Mughal Empire:
— Persian histories and other literature
— Hindi and religious literatures.
— Mughal architecture.
— Mughal painting.
— Provincial architecture and painting.
— Classical music.
— Science and technology.
24. The Eighteenth Century:
— Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire.
— The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal,
— Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas.
— The Maratha fiscal and financial system.
— Emergence of Afghan power Battle of Panipat, 1761.
— State of, political, cultural and economic, on eve of the
British conquest.


1. European Penetration into India:
The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and
the Dutch; The English and the French East India
Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic
Wars; Bengal-The conflict between the English and the
Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of
Plassey; Significance of Plassey.
2. British Expansion in India:
Bengal-Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar;
Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars;
The Punjab.
3. Early Structure of the British Raj:
The Early administrative structure; From diarchy to
direct contol; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt's India
Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The Voice of free
trade and the changing character of British colonial rule;
The English utilitarian and India.
4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:
(a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent
Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement;
Economic impact of the revenue arrangements;
Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless
agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-
industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of
wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and
communication network including telegraph and postal
services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior;
European business enterprise and its limitations.
5. Social and Cultural Developments:
The state of indigenous education, its dislocation;
Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of
western education in India; The rise of press, literature
and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular
literature; Progress of Science; Christian missionary
activities in India.
6. Social and Religious Reform Movements in Bengal and
Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement;
Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The
Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The
social reform movements in India including Sati, widow
remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of
Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India;
Islamic revivalism-the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements. 7. Indian Response to British Rule:
Peasant movement and tribal uprisings in the 18th and
19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the
Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar
(1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion
(1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda
Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 —Origin,
character, casuses of failure, the consequences; The
shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-
1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and
8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism;
Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian
National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to
the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of
Early Congress; the social composition of early
Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists;
The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement
in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of
Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary
extremism in India.
9. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism;
Gandhi's popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the
Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement;
National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation
movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience
Movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience
Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the
Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant
Movements; Nationalism and Working class
movements; Women and Indian youth and students in
Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the
formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India
Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.
10. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India
between 1858 and 1935.
11. Other strands in the National Movement.
The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra,
U.P. the Madras Presidency, Outside India.
The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal
Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist
Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.
12. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu
Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition;
Transfer of power; Independence.
13. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru's Foreign Policy; India
and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic
reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and
regional inequality; Integration of Princely States;
Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National
14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward Castes and
Tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit
15. Economic development and political change; Land
reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction;
Ecology and environmental policy in post-colonial
India; Progress of Science.
16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
(i) Major Ideas of Enlightenment : Kant, Rousseau.
(ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies.
(iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian
17. Origins of Modern Politics :
(i) European States System
(ii) American Revolution and the Constitution
(iii) French Revolution and Aftermath, 1789-1815
(iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln
and the abolition of slavery.
(v) British Democratic politics, 1815-1850 : Parliamentary
Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.
18. Industrialization :
(i) English Industrial Revolution : Causes and Impact on
(ii) Industrialization in other countries : USA, Germany,
Russia, Japan.
(iii) Industrialization and Globalization.
19. Nation-State System :
(i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century.
(ii) Nationalism : State-building in Germany and Italy.
(iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence
of nationalities across the World.
20. Imperialism and Colonialism :
(i) South and South-East Asia.
(ii) Latin America and South Africa.
(iii) Australia.
(iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.
21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution :
(i) 19th Century European revolutions.
(ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921.
(iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.
(iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949.
22. World Wars :
(i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars : Societal
(ii) World War I : Causes and Consequences.
(iii) World War II : Causes and Consequences. 23. The World after World War II:
(i) Emergence of Two power blocs.
(ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment
(iii) UNO and the global disputes.
24. Liberation from Colonial Rule :
(i) Latin America-Bolivar.
(ii) Arab World-Egypt.
(iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy.
(iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam.
25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment :
(i) Factors constraining Development ; Latin America,
26. Unification of Europe :
(i) Post War Foundations ; NATO and European
(ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community
(iii) European Union.
27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar
World :
(i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet Communism
and Soviet Union, 1985-1991.
(ii) Political Changes in East Europe 1989-2001.
(iii) End of the Cold War and US Ascendancy in the World
as the lone superpower.